Uddin was Associate Professor in the Cognitive and Behavioral Neuroscience Division which she created in the Department of Psychology at the University of Miami. She directs the Brain Connectivity and Cognition Laboratory, which makes use of neuroimaging to better understand the relationship between neural connectivity and cognition. At the University of Miami, Uddin established a graduate program in cognitive and behavioral neuroscience. In 2018, she was appointed a CIFAR Azrieli Global Scholar. Her current research examines brain network dynamics and cognitive flexibility in neurodevelopmental disorders.
Uddin returned to University of California, Los Angeles in 2021, where she was appointed Professor and co-director of the Center for Cognitive Neuroscience Analysis Core at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Behavior. Her lab uses resting state fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging data to examine large-scale brain networks, and how these networks support executive function.