Posts classified under: Integrative Biology & Physiology

Ketema Paul, Ph.D.


After receiving a bachelor’s degree in biology from Howard University I went on to study neurobiology and circadian biology at Georgia State University in Atlanta, Georgia where I received my doctorate in 2003. I completed a postdoctoral fellowship at Northwestern University in Evanston Illinois in 2006 at the Center for Sleep and Circadian Biology under the guidance of Dr. Fred Turek, after which I accepted a faculty position at the Morehouse School of Medicine (MSM). I spent ten years at MSM and joined the faculty at UCLA in 2016.

Research Interests

My work examines the genetic regulation of sleep and more importantly, how genetic heterogeneity influences the ability to recover from sleep loss. My research program currently has two foci: 1) to determine if disruptions of biological timing result in sleep-wake disorders and if so, which specific genes are involved and, 2) to determine if sex differences in the risk and severity of sleep abnormalities are chromosomally driven. My lab has recently undertaken a forward genetics approach to identify novel sleep genes. We have characterized a variety of sleep phenotypes in inbred mouse strains in sleep-replete and sleep-deprived conditions. We are expanding this dataset to provide sufficient statistical power for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and subsequent follow-up studies. This endeavor combines a well-established paradigm of comparative phenotyping of a genetically tractable animal model with powerful genetic mapping tools to identify novel sleep-regulatory genes. Consequently, these experiments will not only identify new sleep genes, they will also help verify and clarify previously mapped genes whose roles are not yet clearly defined.



B.S., Biology, Howard University 1994
Ph.D., Biology, Georgia State University 2003


Selected Publications

Ehlen, J.C., Brager, A.J., Baggs, J., Pinckney, L., Gray, C.L., Debruyne, J.P., Esser, K.A., Takahashi, J.S., Paul, K.N., “Bmal1 function in skeletal muscle regulates sleep”, eLife, 1-15 (2017) .

Clark, K.P., Ehlen, J.C., Paul, K.N., “Race and Gender Disparities in Sleep-Disordered Breathing”, Journal of Sleep Disorders: Treatment & Care, 6 (1): 1-4 (2017) .

Brager A.J., Heemstra, L., Bhambra, R., Ehlen, J.C., Esser, K., Paul, K.N., Novak, C. M., “Homeostatic effects of exercise and sleep on metabolic processes in mice with an overexpressed skeletal muscle clock”, Biochimie, 132 : 161-165 (2017) .

Brager, A.J., Yang, T., Ehlen, J.C., Simon, R.P., Meller, R., Paul, K.N., “Sleep is critical for remote preconditioning-induce neuroprotection”, Sleep, 39 : 2033-2040 (2016) .

Ehlen, J.C., Jones, K.A., Pinckney, L., Gray, C.L. Burette, S., Weinberg, R.J., Evans, J.A., Brager, A., Zylka, M.J., Paul, K.N., Philphot, B.D., Debruyne, J.P, “Maternal Ube3a loss disrupts sleep homeostasis but leaves circadian rhythmicity largely intact”, Sleep, 35 : 13587-13598 (2015) .

Evans, J.A., Suen, T-C., Calif, B., Mitchell, A., Castanon-Cervantes, O., Baker, K.M., Kloehn, I., Baba, K., Teubner, B.J.W., Ehlen, J.C., Paul, K.N., Bartness, T.J., Tosini, G., Leise, T.L., Davidson, A.J, “Shell neurons of the master circadian clock coordinate the phase of tissue clocks throughout the brain and body”, Sleep, 13 : 1-15 (2015) .

Jefferson, F., Ehlen, J.C., Williams, N.S., Paul, K.N, “A dopamine D2-receptor agonist attenuates the ability of stress to alter sleep in mice”, Sleep, 155 : 4411-4421 (2014) .

Ehlen, J.C., Jefferson, F. Brager, A.J., Benveniste, M., Paul, K.N., “Period-Amplitude Analysis Reveals Wake-Dependent Changes in the Electroencephalogram during Sleep Deprivation”, Sleep, 36 : 1723-1735 (2013) .

Brager, A.J., Ehlen, J.C., Castanon-Cervantes, O., Natarajan, D., Delisser, P., Davidson, A., Paul, K.N, “Sleep loss and inflammatory markers under chronic environmental circadian disruption”, Sleep, 8 : 1-8 (2013) .

Ehlen, J.C., Hesse S., Pinckney, L., Paul, K.N, “Sex chromosomes regulate nighttime sleep propensity during recovery from sleep loss”, Sleep, 8 : 1-6 (2013) .

Patricia Phelps, Ph.D.


A selected list of publications:

Khankan, R.R., I.B. Wanner, and P.E. Phelps   Olfactory ensheathing cell-neurite alignment enhances neurite outgrowth in scar-like cultures, Experimental Neurology, 2015; 269: 93-101.
Abadesco, A., M. Cilluffo, G.M. Yvone, E.M. Carpenter, B.W. Howell, and P.E. Phelps   Novel Disabled-1-expressing neurons identified in adult brain and spinal cord, European Journal of Neuroscience , 2014; 39: 579-592.
Awe, J.P., P.C. Lee, C. Ramathal, A. Vega-Crespo, J. Durruthy-Durruthy, A. Cooper, S. Karumbayaram, W. Lowry, A. Clark, J. Zack, V. Sebastiano, D. Kohn, A. Pyle, M. Martin, G.S. Lipshutz, P.E. Phelps, R. Reijo Pera and J.A. Byrne   Generation and characterization of transgene-free human induced pluripotent stem cells and conversion to putative clinical-grade status, Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 2013; 4: 87.
Wang, X., A.H. Babayan, A.I. Basbaum and P.E. Phelps   Loss of the Reelin-signaling pathway differentially disrupts heat, mechanical and chemical nociceptive processing. , Neuroscience, 2012; 226: 441-450.
Moore K.D, Chen R., Cilluffo M., Golden J.A., Phelps P.E.   Lis1 reduction causes tangential migratory errors in mouse spinal cord The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 2012; 520: 1198-211.
Takeoka, A., D.L. Jindrich, C. Muñoz-Quiles, H. Zhong, R. van den Brand, D.L. Pham, M.D. Ziegler, A. Ramón-Cueto, R.R. Roy, V.R. Edgerton, and P.E. Phelps   Axon regeneration can facilitate or suppress hindlimb function after OEG transplantation, Journal of Neuroscience, 2011; 31: 4298-4310.
Ziegler MD, Hsu D, Takeoka A, Zhong H, Ramón-Cueto A, Phelps PE, Roy RR, and Edgerton VR   Further evidence of Olfactory Ensheathing Glia facilitating axonal regeneration after a complete spinal cord transection, Experimental Neurology, 2011; 229: 109-119.
Takeoka, A, Kubasak, MD, Zhong, H, Kaplan, J, Roy, RR, Phelps, PE   Noradrenergic innervation of the rat spinal cord caudal to a complete spinal cord transection: Effects of olfactory ensheathing glia Experimental Neurology, 2010; 222: 59-69.
Phelps Patricia E   Reelin induces a common signal for spinal cord and cerebral cortical migration (commentary on Kruger et al.) The European Journal of Neuroscience, 2010; 32: 1609-10.
Shields*, S.D., K.D. Moore*, P.E. Phelps, and A.I. Basbaum   Olfactory ensheathing glia express Aquaporin 1, Journal of Comparative Neurology , 2010; 518: 4329-4341.
Takeoka Aya, Kubasak Marc D, Zhong Hui, Roy Roland R, Phelps Patricia E   Serotonergic innervation of the caudal spinal stump in rats after complete spinal transection: Effect of olfactory ensheathing glia Journal of Comparative Neurology, 2009; 515: 664-76.
Runyan, SA, Phelps, PE   Mouse olfactory ensheathing glia enhance axon outgrowth on a myelin Experimental Neurology, 2009; 216: 95-104.
Akopians Alin L, Babayan Alex H, Beffert Uwe, Herz Joachim, Basbaum Allan I, Phelps Patricia E   Contribution of the Reelin signaling pathways to nociceptive processing European Journal of Neuroscience, 2008; 27: 523-37.
Kubasak, MD, Jindrich, DL, Zhong, H, Takeoka, A, McFarland, KC, Munoz-Quiles, C, Roy, RR, Edgerton, VR, Ramon-Cueto, A, Phelps, PE   OEG implantation and step training enhance hindlimb-stepping ability in adult spinal transected rats Brain, 2008; 131: 264-76.
Villeda, SA, Akopians, AL, Babayan, AH, Basbaum, AI, and Phelps, PE   Absence of reelin results in altered nociception and aberrant neuronal positioning in the dorsal spinal cord, Neuroscience, 2006; 139: 1385-1396.
Tran T.S, Cohen-Cory S., Phelps P.E.   Embryonic GABAergic spinal commissural neurons project rostrally to mesencephalic targets The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 2004; 475: 327-39.
Tran, TS, Cohen-Cory, S and Phelps, PE   Embryonic GABAergic spinal commissural neurons project rostrally to mesencepahlic targets Journal of Comparative Neurology, 2004; 475: 327-339.
Kubasak, MD Brooks, R Chen, S Villeda, SA Phelps, PE   Developmental distribution of reelin-positive cells and their secreted product in the rodent spinal cord Journal of Comparative Neurology, 2004; 468: 165-78.
Akopians, A Runyan, SA Phelps, PE   Expression of L1 decreases during postnatal development of rat spinal cord Journal of Comparative Neurology, 2003; 467: 375-88.
Tran, TS Alijani, A Phelps, PE   Unique developmental patterns of GABAergic neurons in rat spinal cord Journal Comparative Neurology , 2003; 456(2): 112-26.
Phelps, PE, Rich, R, Dupuy-Davies, S, Rios, Y, and Wong, T   Evidence for a cell-specific action of Reelin in the spinal cord Developmental Biology, 2002; 244: 180-198.
Orlino, EN Wong, CM Phelps, PE   L1 and GAD65 are expressed on dorsal commissural axons in embryonic rat spinal cord Developmental Brain Research, 2000; 125(1-2): 117-30.
Foster, JA Phelps, PE   Neurons expressing NADPH-diaphorase in the developing human spinal cord Journal Comparative Neurology , 2000; 427(3): 417-27.
Phelps, PE Alijani, A Tran, TS   Ventrally located commissural neurons express the GABAergic phenotype in developing rat spinal cord Journal Comparative Neurology, 1999; 409(2): 285-98.
Phelps, PE Barber, RP Vaughn, JE   Nonradial migration of interneurons can be experimentally altered in spinal cord slice cultures Development (Cambridge, England) , 1996; 122(7): 2013-22.

Peter Narins, Ph.D.


Auditory Neurophysiology, Mechanics and Behavior My research focuses on the question of how animals extract relevant sounds from the often highly noisy backgrounds in which they live. The techniques I use are the quantitative analysis of vocal behavior of animals in their natural habitats, followed by single fiber neurophysiological recordings in order to elucidate mechanisms underlying signal processing in noise. A second research direction is based on the discovery of the remarkable sensitivity to substrate vibrations possessed by burrowing animals. We are now characterizing and providing accurate measurements of vibrational thresholds as well as exploring the differences between substrate-vibration and airborne sound at the cellular level. Other projects carried out by our group have included an investigation of the neurophysiological basis of sound localization in noisy environments, a study of the temperature-dependence of the representation of time in the vertebrate auditory system, the biophysics of sound localization and the evolution of the middle ear reflex in vertebrates. Current projects include using laser Doppler vibrometry to elucidate the sound pathways relevant for stimulation of both the middle and inner ear in small vertebrates, and using whole-cell voltage clamp techniques to carry out an anatomical and physiological study of the mechanisms underlying transduction in vertebrate sensory hair cells. When possible, we supplement the lab work with direct behavioral observations and controlled acoustic playback studies carried out with animals in their natural habitats. These have included both Old and New World lowland wet tropical forests, African deserts and temperate forests in South America.


A selected list of publications:

Kershenbaum, A., Blumstein, D.T., Roch, M.A., Bee, M., Narins, P.M. and 39 others   Acoustic sequences in non-human animals: A tutorial review and prospectus, Biological Reviews , 2016; 91: 13-52.
Simmons, A. and Narins, P.M.   Effects of anthropogenic noise on amphibians and reptiles, In: Human-Generated Sound and Animals, H. Slabbekoorn, R.R. Fay, A.N. Popper (eds.), 2016; (In Press).
Narins, P.M., Stoeger-Horwath, A. and O’Connell-Rodwell, C.   Infrasound and seismic communication in the vertebrates with special emphasis on the Afrotheria: An update and future directions, In: Vertebrate Sound Production and Acoustic Communication. R.A. Suthers, W.T. Fitch, A.N. Popper, R.R. Fay (eds.), 2016; (In Press).
Narins, P.M. and Clark, G.A.   Principles of matched filtering with auditory examples from selected vertebrates, In: The Ecology of Animal Senses: Matched Filtering for Economical Sensing. G. von der Emde, E. Warrant (eds.), 2016; 111-140.
Bergevin, C., Meenderink, S.W.F., Van der Heijden, M. and Narins, P.M.   Slow dynamics of the amphibian tympanic membrane, Mechanics of Hearing: Protein to Perception, K.D. Karavitaki, D.P. Corey (eds.), 2015; 060001-1 – 060001-5.
Narins, P.M. and Meenderink, S.W.F.   Climate change and frog calls: Long-term correlations along a tropical altitudinal gradient, Proc. R. Soc. B, 2014; 281: 20140401.
Narins, P.M., Wilson, M. and Mann, D.   Ultrasound detection in fishes and frogs: Discovery and mechanisms, In: Insights from Comparative Hearing Research. C. Köppl, G.A, Manley, A.N. Popper, R.R. Fay (eds.), 2014; 133-156.
Miller, M.E., Nasiri, A.K., Farhangi, P.O., Farahbakhsh, N.A., Lopez, I.A., Narins, P.M. and Simmons, D.D.   Evidence for water-permeable channels in auditory hair cells in the leopard frog, Hear. Res, 2012; 292: 64-70.
Quiñones, P.M., Luu, C., Schweizer, F.E. and Narins, P.M.   Exocytosis in the frog amphibian papilla, J. Asso. Res. Otolaryngol, 2012; .
Manley, G.A., Narins, P.M. and Fay, R.R.   Experiments in comparative hearing: Georg von Békésy and beyond, Hear. Res, 2012; 293: 44-50.
Arch, V.S., Simmons, D.D., Quiñones, P.M., Feng, A.S., Jiang, J., Stuart, B., Shen, J.-X., Blair, C. and Narins, P.M.   Inner ear morphological correlates of ultrasonic hearing in frogs, Hear. Res, 2012; 283: 70-79.
Cui, J., Tang, Y. and Narins, P.M.   Real estate ads in Emei music frog vocalizations: female preference for calls emanating from burrows, Biol. Letters, 2012; 8: 337-340.
Narins, P.M. and Willi, U.B.   The golden mole middle ear: a sensor for airborne and substrate-borne vibrations, In: Frontiers in Sensing: Biology and Engineering. F.G. Barth, J.A.C. Humphrey, M.V. Srinivasan (eds.), 2012; 275-286.
Chen, H.-h. A. and Narins, P.M.   Wind turbines and ghost stories: The effects of infrasound on the human auditory system, Acoustics Today, 2012; 8: 51-56.
Shen, J.-X., Xu, Z.-M., Feng, A. and Narins, P.M.   Large odorous frogs (Odorrana graminea) produce ultrasonic calls, J. Comp. Physiol, 2011; 197: 1027-1030.
Ziegler, L., Arim, M. and Narins, P.M.   Linking amphibian call structure to the environment: The interplay of phenotypic flexibility and individual attributes, Behav. Ecol, 2011; 22: 520-526.
van Dijk, P., Mason, M.J., Schoffelen, R.L.M., Narins, P.M. and Meenderink, S.W.F.   Mechanics of the frog ear, Hear. Res, 2011; 273: 46-58.
Farahbakhsh, N.A., Zelaya, J.E. and Narins, P.M.   Osmotic properties of auditory hair cells in theleopard frog: Evidence for water-permeable channels, Hear. Res, 2011; 272: 69-84.
Arch, V.S., Burmeister, S.S., Feng, A.S., Shen, J.-X. and Narins, P.M.   Ultrasound-evoked immediate early gene expression in the brainstem of the Chinese torrent frog, Odorrana tormota, J. Comp. Physiol, 2011; 197: 667-675.
Kaiser, K., Scofield, D.G., Alloush, M., Jones, R.M., Marczak, S., Martineau, K., Oliva, M.A. and Narins, P.M.   When sounds collide: The effect of anthropogenic noise on a breeding assemblage of frogs in Belize, Central America, Behaviour, 2011; 148: 215-232.
Meenderink, S.W.F., Kits, M. and Narins, P.M.   Frequency matching of vocalizations to inner-ear sensitivity along an altitudinal gradient in the coqui frog, Biol. Letters, 2010; 6: 278-281.
Gridi-Papp, M. and Narins, P.M.   Seismic detection and communication in amphibians, In: The use of vibrations in communication: Properties, mechanisms and function across taxa, C.E. O’Connell-Rodwell, (ed.), 2010; 69-83.
Mason, M. and Narins, P.M.   Seismic sensitivity and communication in subterranean mammals, In: The use of vibrations in communication: Properties, mechanisms and function across taxa, C.E. O’Connell-Rodwell (ed.), 2010; 121-139.
Gridi-Papp, M. and Narins, P.M.   Environmental influences in the evolution of tetrapod hearing sensitivity and middle ear tuning, Int. & Comp. Biol, 2009; 49: 702-716.
Wong, S., Parada, H. and Narins, P.M.   Heterospecific acoustic interference: Effects on calling in Oophaga pumilio, Biotropica, 2009; 41: 74-80.
Arch, V.S., Grafe, T.U., Gridi-Papp, M. and Narins, P.M.   Pure ultrasonic communication in an endemic Bornean frog, PloS ONE, 2009; 4(4): e5413.
Narins, P.M., Losin, N. and O’Connell-Rodwell, C.E.   Seismic and vibrational signals in animals, In: Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (L. Squire, Ed.), 2009; 8: 555-559.
Arch, V.S. and Narins, P.M.   Sexual Hearing: The influence of sex hormones on acoustic communication in frogs, Hear. Res, 2009; 252: 15-20.
Mason, M.J., Wang, M. and Narins, P.M.   Structure and function of the middle ear apparatus of the aquatic frog, Xenopus laevis, Proc. Inst. Acoust, 2009; 31: 13-21.
Penna, M., Gormáz, J.P. and Narins, P.M.   When signal meets noise: immunity of the frog ear to interference, Naturwissenschaften, 2009; 10.1007/s001 14-009-0542-9: .
Willi, U.B., Bronner, G.N., Narins, P.M.   Middle ear dynamics in response to seismic stimuli in the Cape golden mole, J. Exp. Biol, 2006; 209: 302-313.
Gridi-Papp, M., Feng, A.S., Shen, J.-X., Yu. Z.-L. and Narins, P.M.   Active control of ultrasonic hearing in frogs, PNAS, 2008; 105: 11013-11018.
Gridi-Papp, M. and Narins, P.M.   Sensory Ecology of Hearing, In: The Senses: A Comprehensive Reference, Vol. 3, Audition A.I. Basbaum, A. Kaneko, G.M. Shepherd, G. Westheimer, eds. (P. Dallos, D. Oertel, Series eds.), 2008; 61-74.
Farahbakhsh, N.A. and Narins, P.M.   Slow motility in hair cells of the frog amphibian papilla: Myosin-II mediated shape change, Hear. Res, 2008; 241: 7-17.
Feng, A.S. and Narins, P.M.   Ultrasonic communication in concave-eared torrent frogs (Amolops) , J. Comp. Physiol, 2008; 194: 159-167.
Shen, J.-X., Feng, A.S., Xu, Z.-M., Yu, Z.-L., Arch, V.S., Yu, X.-J. and Narins, P.M.   Ultrasonic frogs show hyperacute phonotaxis to female’s courtship calls, Nature, 2008; 453: 914-916.
Arch, V.S., Grafe, T.U. and Narins, P.M.   Ultrasonic signaling by a Bornean frog, Biol. Letters, 2008; 4: 19-22.
Arch, V.S. and Narins, P.M.   “Silent” signals: Selective forces acting on ultrasonic communication signals in terrestrial vertebrates, Animal Behavior, 2008; 76: 1423-1428.
Narins, P.M., Feng, A.S., Fay, R.R., Popper, A.N.   Hearing and Sound Communication in Amphibians, Springer, New York, 2007; .
Meenderink, S.W.F. and Narins, P.M.   Suppression of distortion product otoacoustic emissions in the anuran basilar papilla, J. Acoust. Soc. Am, 2007; 121: 344-351.
Ho, C.C.K. and Narins, P.M.   Directionality of pressure-difference receiver ears in the northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens pipiens, J. Comp. Physiol, 2006; 192: 417-429.
Willi, U.B., Bronner, G.N. and Narins, P.M.   Ossicular differentiation of airborne and seismic stimuli in the Cape golden mole (Chrysochloris asiatica), J. Comp. Physiol, 2006; 192: 267-277.
Lewis, E.R., Narins, P.M., Jarvis, J.U.M., Bronner, G. and Mason, M.J.   Preliminary evidence for the use of microseismic cues for navigation by the Namib golden mole, J. Acoust. Soc. Am, 2006; 119: 1260-1268.
Farahbakhsh, N.A. and Narins, P.M.   Slow motility in hair cells of the frog amphibian papilla: , Hear. Res, 2006; 212: 140-159.
Meenderink, S.W.F. and Narins, P.M.   Stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions in the Northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens pipiens: Implications for inner ear mechanics, Hearing Research, 2006; 220: 67-75.
Feng, A.S., Narins, P.M., Xu, C.-H., Lin, W.-Y., Yu, Z.-L., Qiu, Q., Xu, Z.-M. and Shen, J.-X.   Ultrasonic communication in frogs, Nature , 2006; 440: 333-336.
Suthers, R.A., Narins, P.M., Lin, W., Schnitzler, H.-U., Denzinger, A., Xu, C.-H. and Feng, A.S.   Voices of the dead: Complex nonlinear vocal signals from the larynx of an ultrasonic frog, J. Exp. Biol, 2006; 209: 4984-4993.
Sun, J.W.C. and Narins, P.M.   Anthropogenic sounds differentially affect amphibian call rate, Biological Conservation , 2005; 121: 419-427.
Narins, P.M., Grabul, D.D., Soma, K., Gaucher, P. and Hoedl, W.   Cross-modality integration in a Dart-poison frog, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. , 2005; 102: 2425-2429.
Meenderink, SW Narins, PM van Dijk, P   Detailed f1, f2 area study of distortion product otoacoustic emissions in the frog Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology : JARO. , 2005; 6(1): 37-47.
Vassilakis, PN Meenderink, SW Narins, PM   Distortion product otoacoustic emissions provide clues hearing mechanisms in the frog ear The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. , 2004; 116(6): 3713-26.
Klump, G., Benedix, J.H., Jr., Gerhardt, H.C. and Narins, P.M.   Neural correlates of behavioral responses to amplitude modulated calls in the green treefrog, Hyla cinerea, J. Comp. Physiol. , 2004; 190: 1011-1021.
Hoedl, W., Narins, P.M. and Amezquita, A.   The role of call frequency and the auditory papillae in phonotactic behavior in male Dart-poison frogs Epipedobates femoralis (Dendrobatidae), J. Comp. Physiol. , 2004; 190: 823-829.
Narins, P.M., Hodl, W., Grabul, D.S.   Bimodal signal requisite for agonistic behavior in a dart-poison frog, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. , 2003; 100: 577-580.
Mason, MJ Lin, CC Narins, PM   Sex differences in the middle ear of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) Brain, behavior and evolution. , 2003; 61(2): 91-101.
Mason, MJ Narins, PM   Vibrometric studies of the middle ear of the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana I. The extrastapes The Journal of experimental biology. , 2002; 205(Pt 20): 3153-65.
Mason, MJ Narins, PM   Vibrometric studies of the middle ear of the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana II. The operculum The Journal of experimental biology. , 2002; 205(Pt 20): 3167-76.
Christensen-Dalsgaard, J., Ludwig, T., Narins, P.M.   Call diversity in an Old World treefrog: Level dependence and latency of acoustic responses, Bioacoustics, 2002; 13: 21-35.
Mason, MJ Narins, PM   Seismic sensitivity in the desert golden mole (Eremitalpa granti): a review Journal of comparative psychology (Washington, D.C. : 1983) , 2002; 116(2): 158-63.
Lewis, E.R., Narins, P.M., Cortopassi, K., Yamada, W., Moore, S.   Do white-lipped frogs use seismic signals for intraspecific communication?, Am. Zool, 2001; 41: 1185-1199.
Narins, P.M.   Ectothermy’s last stand: Hearing in the heat and cold, Anuran Communication, 2001; 61-70.
Narins, P.M., Lewis, E.R., Purgue, A.P., Bishop, P.J., Minter, L.R. and Lawson, D.P.   Functional consequences of a novel middle ear adaptation in the West African Petropedetes parkeri (Ranidae), J. Exp. Biol, 2001; 204: 1223-1232.
Mason, M., Narins, P.M.   Seismic signal use by fossorial mammals, Am. Zool, 2001; 41: 1171-1184.
Garcia, E.J. and Narins, P.M.   Shared acoustic resources in an Old World frog community, Herpetologica, 2001; 57: 104-116.
Narins, P.M.   Vibration communication in vertebrates, Ecology of Sensing, 2001; 127-148.
Narins, PM   Acoustics. In a fly’s ear Nature. , 2001; 410(6829): 644-5.
Smotherman, MS Narins, PM   Hair cells, hearing and hopping: a field guide to hair cell physiology in the frog The Journal of experimental biology. , 2000; 203(Pt 15): 2237-46.
Narins, P.M., Lewis, E.R. and McClelland, B.E.   Hyperextended call repertoire of the endemic Madagascar treefrog, Boophis madagascariensis (Rhacophoridae), J. Zool., Lond, 2000; 250: 283-298.
Purgue, A.P. and Narins, P.M.   Mechanical basis for the frequency selectivity in the ear of the bullfrog (Rana cetesbeiana), Recent Developments in Auditory Mechanics, 2000; 513-519.
Purgue, AP Narins, PM   A model for energy flow in the inner ear of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) Journal of comparative physiology. A, Sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology. , 2000; 186(5): 489-95.
Purgue, AP Narins, PM   Mechanics of the inner ear of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana): the contact membranes and the periotic canal Journal of comparative physiology. A, Sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology. , 2000; 186(5): 481-8.
Smotherman, MS Narins, PM   The electrical properties of auditory hair cells in the frog amphibian papilla The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. , 1999; 19(13): 5275-92.
Lewis, E.R. and Narins, P.M.   The Acoustic Periphery of Amphibians: Anatomy and Physiology, Comparative Hearing: Fish and Amphibians, 1999; 101-154.
Smotherman, MS Narins, PM   Potassium currents in auditory hair cells of the frog basilar papilla Hearing research. , 1999; 132(1-2): 117-30.
Narins, P. M., Feng, A.S., Yong, H-S. and Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.   Morphological, behavioral and genetic divergence of sympatric morphotypes of the treefrog, Polypedates leucomystax in Peninsular Malaysia, Herpetologica, 1998; 54: 129-142.
Smotherman, M.S. and Narins, P.M.   Variations in the electrical properties of hair cells in the frog auditory system, Psychophysical and Physiological Advances in Hearing, 1998; 105-111.
Smotherman, MS Narins, PM   Effect of temperature on electrical resonance in leopard frog saccular hair cells Journal of neurophysiology. , 1998; 79(1): 312-21.
Narins, P.M., Benedix, J.H. Jr. and Moss, F.   Can increasing temperature improve information transfer in the anuran peripheral auditory system?, Aud. Neurosci, 1997; 3: 389-400.
Lewis, E.R., Lyon, R., Long, G.R. and Narins, P.M.   Diversity in Auditory Mechanics, , 1997; .
Narins, P.M., Benedix, J.H., Jr. and Moss, F.   Does stochastic resonance play a role in hearing?, Diversity in Auditory Mechanics, 1997; 83-90.
Narins, P.M.   Frog vibrational communication: Lessons from the rain forest, Echos, 1997; 7: 1-5.
Narins, PM Lewis, ER Jarvis, JJ O’Riain, J   The use of seismic signals by fossorial southern African mammals: a neuroethological gold mine Brain research bulletin. , 1997; 44(5): 641-6.
Wang, J., Ludwig, T. and Narins P.M.   Direction sensitivity of the auditory periphery in the northern leopard frog, J. Comp. Physiol, 1996; 178: 159-172.
Narins, P.M. and Lewis, E.R.   Extended call repertoire of a Madagascar frog, Biogeographie de Madagascar , 1996; 403-410.
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Gina Poe, Ph.D.


Gina Poe has been working since 1995 on the mechanisms through which sleep serves memory consolidation and restructuring. Dr. Poe is a southern California native who graduated from Stanford University then worked for two post-baccalaureate years at the VA researching Air Force Test Pilots’ brainwave signatures under high-G maneuvers. She then earned her PhD in Basic Sleep in the Neuroscience Interdepartmental Program at UCLA under the guidance of Ronald Harper then moved to the University of Arizona for her postdoctoral studies with Carol Barnes and Bruce McNaughtons looking at graceful degradation of hippocampal function in aged rats as well as hippocampal coding in a 3-D maze navigated in the 1998 space shuttle mission. She brought these multiunit teachings to answer a burning question of whether REM sleep were for remembering or forgetting and found that activity of neurons during REM sleep is consistent both with the consolidation of novel memories and the elimination of already consolidated memories from the hippocampus, readying the associative memory network for new learning the next day. Moving first to Washington State University then to the University of Michigan before joining UCLA in 2016, Poe has over 80 undergraduates, 9 graduate students, and 8 postdoctoral scholars, and has served in university faculty governance as well as led 5 different programs designed to diversify the neuroscience workforce and increase representation of people of the global majority in the STEM fields. At UCLA she continues research and teaching and Directs the COMPASS-Life Sciences and BRI-SURE programs and co-Directs the MARC-U*STAR program. Nationally she has served as course director of the Marine Biological Lab’s SPINES course and co-Directs the Society for Neuroscience’s NSP program which earned the nation’s highest mentoring honor in 2018. These programs have over 1000 PhD level alumni.

Research Interests

The Poe lab investigates the mechanisms by which sleep traits serve learning and memory consolidation. Memories are encoded by the pattern of synaptic connections between neurons. We employ tetrode recording and optogenetic techniques in learning animals to see how neural patterns underlying learning are reactivated during sleep, and how activity during sleep influences the neural memory code. Both strengthening and weakening of synapses is important to the process of sculpting a network when we make new memories and integrate them into old schema. Results from our studies suggest that while synaptic strengthening can be efficiently accomplished during the waking learning process, the synaptic weakening part of memory integration requires conditions unique to sleep. The absence of noradrenaline during sleep spindles and REM sleep as well as the low levels of serotonin during REM sleep allow the brain to integrate new memories and to refresh and renew old synapses so that we are ready to build new associations the next waking period. Memory difficulties involved in post-traumatic stress disorder, Schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease and even autism involve abnormalities in the sleep-dependent memory consolidation process that my lab studies. Keywords: Sleep, learning and memory, PTSD, memory consolidation, reconsolidation, REM sleep, sleep spindles, Norepinephrine, LTP, depotentiation, reversal learning, optogenetics, electrophysiology, tetrode recordings, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex.


B.A., Human Biology, Stanford University 1987
Ph.D., Neuroscience, University of California, Los Angeles 1995

Selected Publications

Cao J, Herman AB, West GB, Poe G, Savage VM. Unraveling why we sleep: Quantitative analysis reveals abrupt transition from neural reorganization to repair in early development. Sci Adv 6(38):eaba0398 (11 pages), 2020. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aba0398.

Guthrie R, Ciliberti D, Mankin E, Poe GR. Recurrent hippocampo-neocortical sleep-state divergence in humans. PNAS 119(44): e2123427119, PM36279474, 2022.

Frazer M, Cabrera Y, Guthrie R, Poe GR. Shining a light on the mechanisms of sleep for memory consolidation. Current Sleep Medicine Rep, 7:221-231, 2021.

Cabrera Y, Holloway J, Poe GR (2020) ‘Sleep Changes Across the Female Hormonal Cycle Affecting Memory: Implications for Resilient Adaptation to Traumatic Experiences.’ J Womens Health (Larchmt), 29 (3): 446-451. PMID: 32186966

Swift KM, Keus K, Echeverria CG, Cabrera Y, Jimenez J, Holloway J, Clawson BC, Poe GR () ‘Sex differences within sleep in gonadally-intact rats.’ Sleep, 2019.PMID: 31784755

Swift KM, Gross BA, Frazer MA, Bauer DS, Clark KJD, Vazey EM, Aston-Jones G, Li Y, Pickering AE, Sara SJ, Poe GR (2018) ‘Abnormal Locus Coeruleus Sleep Activity Alters Sleep Signatures of Memory Consolidation and Impairs Place Cell Stability and Spatial Memory.’ Curr Biol, 28 (22): 3599-3609.e4. PMID: 30393040

Zaborszky L, Gombkoto P, Varsanyi P, Poe GR, Role L, Ananth M, Rajebhosale P, Talmage D, Hasselmo M, Dannenberg H, Minces V, Chiba A, “Specific basal forebrain-cortical cholinergic circuits coordinate cognitive operations”, J Neurosci, 38 (44): 9446-9458 (2018).

Lewis P, Knoblich G, Poe GR, “Recasting reality: how memory replay in sleep boosts creative problem solving”, Trends Cogni Sci, 22 (6): 491-503 (2018).

Bjorness TE, Booth V, Poe GR (2018) ‘Hippocampal theta power pressure builds over non-REM sleep and dissipates within REM sleep episodes.’ Arch Ital Biol, 156 (3): 112-126. PMID: 30324607

Poe GR (2017) ‘Sleep Is for Forgetting.’ J Neurosci, 37 (3): 464-473. PMID: 28100731

Javanbakht, A and Poe, GR, “Behavioral neuroscience of circuits involved in arousal regulation”, The Neurobiology of PTSD, Ressler, K and Liberzon, I(Eds.), 130-147 (2016).

Emrick JJ, Gross BA, Riley BT, Poe GR (2016) ‘Different Simultaneous Sleep States in the Hippocampus and Neocortex.’ Sleep, 39 (12): 2201-2209. PMID: 27748240

Vanderheyden WM, George SA, Urpa L, Kehoe M, Liberzon I, Poe GR (2015) ‘Sleep alterations following exposure to stress predict fear-associated memory impairments in a rodent model of PTSD.’ Exp Brain Res, 233 (8): 2335-46. PMID: 26019008.

Watts A, Gritton HJ, Sweigart J, Poe GR (2012) ‘Antidepressant suppression of non-REM sleep spindles and REM sleep impairs hippocampus-dependent learning while augmenting striatum-dependent learning.’ J Neurosci, 32 (39): 13411-20. PMID: 23015432

Booth V, Poe GR (2006) ‘Input source and strength influences overall firing phase of model hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells during theta: relevance to REM sleep reactivation and memory consolidation.’ Hippocampus, 16 (2): 161-73. PMID: 16411243