Posts classified under: Neuroendocrinology and Sex Differences

Christopher Colwell, Ph.D.


Christopher S. Colwell is a Neuroscientist who has served on the UCLA School of Medicine faculty since he joined the Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences in 1997. He became a Professor in 2008. Dr. Colwell earned his B.S. in Neuroscience from Vanderbilt University in 1985. During this time, he started his research in circadian rhythms under the mentorship of Dr. T. Page. Dr. Colwell earned his Ph.D. in Biology at the University of Virginia in 1991. His thesis work explored the neural mechanisms by which light regulates circadian rhythms. Dr. Colwell continued this line of research during a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Virginia with Dr. G. Block. A second postdoctoral fellowship was carried out on the topics of motor control and excitotoxicity in the laboratory of Dr. M. Levine at UCLA. Dr. Colwell learned how to utilize imaging techniques to measure calcium levels inside neurons while a visiting scientist in the laboratory of Dr. Konnerth at the University of Saarland, Germany. Since Dr. Colwell’s faculty appointment at UCLA, his laboratory’s research has focused on understanding the mechanisms underlying circadian rhythms in mammals. Dysfunction in the timing these daily cycles is a key symptom in a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Better understanding the basic biology of this timing system should result in new therapies to improve the quality of life of these patients and the people who care for them.

Christopher J. Evans, Ph.D.


Christopher Evans received his Ph.D. from Imperial College London, conducting his thesis research on endorphins and enkephalins, at the Medical Research Council Institute in Mill Hill. After a postdoctoral fellowship at Stanford University, Dr. Evans joined the UCLA faculty in the Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Science. His research accomplishments have included identification of a number of novel endogenous opioid peptides and the cloning of the first opioid receptor. Dr. Evans was Director of the UCLA Brain Research Institute from 2004-2017 and is the Stefan Hatos Professor directing the Shirley and Stefan Hatos Center for Neurophamacology in the UCLA Semel Institute. Dr. Evans is also director of a NIH-funded center – The Center for Opioid Receptors and Drugs of Abuse or CSORDA. CSORDA, with continuous NIH funding for over 30 years. The aims of CSORDA are to understand the action of opioid drugs such as morphine and heroin at the molecular, cellular and behavioral levels.


View a up-to-date publication list:

A selected list of publications:

Pradhan Amynah, Smith Monique, McGuire Brenna, Evans Christopher, Walwyn Wendy   Chronic inflammatory injury results in increased coupling of delta opioid receptors to voltage-gated Ca2+ channels Molecular pain, 2013; 9(4): 8.
Williams John T, Ingram Susan L, Henderson Graeme, Chavkin Charles, von Zastrow Mark, Schulz Stefan, Koch Thomas, Evans Christopher J, Christie Macdonald J   Regulation of μ-opioid receptors: desensitization, phosphorylation, internalization, and tolerance Pharmacological reviews, 2013; 65(1): 223-54.
Mittal Nitish, Tan Miao, Egbuta Onyemachi, Desai Nina, Crawford Cynthia, Xie Cui-Wei, Evans Christopher, Walwyn Wendy   Evidence that Behavioral Phenotypes of Morphine in β-arr2-/- Mice Are Due to the Unmasking of JNK Signaling Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 2012; 10(2): .
Matynia Anna, Parikh Sachin, Chen Bryan, Kim Paul, McNeill David S, Nusinowitz Steven, Evans Christopher, Gorin Michael B   Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells are the primary but not exclusive circuit for light aversion Experimental eye research, 2012; 105(23): 60-9.
Pradhan Amynah A, Smith Monique L, Kieffer Brigitte L, Evans Christopher J   Ligand-directed signalling within the opioid receptor family British journal of pharmacology, 2012; 167(5): 960-9.
Piault Elisabeth, Doshi Sameepa, Brandt Barbara A, Angün Colpan, Evans Christopher J, Bergqvist Agneta, Trocio Jeffrey   Linguistic validation of translation of the self-assessment goal achievement (saga) questionnaire from English Health and quality of life outcomes, 2012; 10: 40.
Romero-Calderón Rafael, O’Hare Elizabeth D, Suthana Nanthia A, Scott-Van Zeeland Ashley A, Rizk-Jackson Angela, Attar Aida, Madsen Sarah K, Ghiani Cristina A, Evans Christopher J, Watson Joseph B   Project brainstorm: using neuroscience to connect college students with local schools PLoS biology, 2012; 10(4): e1001310.
Ma Yao-Ying, Cepeda Carlos, Chatta Payush, Franklin Lana, Evans Christopher J, Levine Michael S   Regional and cell-type-specific effects of DAMGO on striatal D1 and D2 dopamine receptor-expressing medium-sized spiny neurons ASN neuro, 2012; 4(2): .
Washburn Lorraine R, Zekzer Dan, Eitan Shoshana, Lu Yuxin, Dang Hoa, Middleton Blake, Evans Christopher J, Tian Jide, Kaufman Daniel L   A potential role for shed soluble major histocompatibility class I molecules as modulators of neurite outgrowth PloS one, 2011; 6(3): e18439.
Lasch Kathryn F, Evans Christopher J, Schatell Dori   A qualitative analysis of patient-reported symptoms of anemia Nephrology nursing journal : journal of the American Nephrology Nurses’ Association, 2011; 36(6): 621-4, 631-2; quiz 633.
Lam Hoa, Maga Matthew, Pradhan Amynah, Evans Christopher J, Maidment Nigel T, Hales Tim G, Walwyn Wendy   Analgesic tone conferred by constitutively active mu opioid receptors in mice lacking β-arrestin 2 Molecular pain, 2011; 7(8): 24.
Evans Christopher J, Chiou Chiun-Fang, Fitzgerald Kristina A, Evans William J, Ferrell Betty R, Dale William, Fried Linda P, Gandra Shravanthi R, Dennee-Sommers Brooke, Patrick Donald L   Development of a new patient-reported outcome measure in sarcopenia Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 2011; 12(3): 226-33.
Brubaker Linda, Khullar Vik, Piault Elisabeth, Evans Christopher J, Bavendam Tamara, Beach James, Yeh Yating, Kopp Zoe S, Kelleher Con J, Trocio Jeffrey   Goal attainment scaling in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms: development and pilot testing of the Self-Assessment Goal Achievement (SAGA) questionnaire International urogynecology journal, 2011; 22(8): 937-46.
Ng-Mak Daisy S, Fitzgerald Kristina A, Norquist Josephine M, Banderas Benjamin F, Nelsen Linda M, Evans Christopher J, Healy Cynthia G, Ho Tony W, Bigal Marcelo   Key concepts of migraine postdrome: a qualitative study to develop a post-migraine questionnaire Headache, 2011; 51(1): 105-17.
Poole Daniel P, Pelayo Juan-Carlos, Scherrer Gregory, Evans Christopher J, Kieffer Brigitte L, Bunnett Nigel W   Localization and regulation of fluorescently labeled delta opioid receptor, expressed in enteric neurons of mice Gastroenterology, 2011; 141(3): 982-991.e1-8.
Pradhan Amynah A A, Walwyn Wendy, Nozaki Chihiro, Filliol Dominique, Erbs Eric, Matifas Audrey, Evans Christopher, Kieffer Brigitte L   Ligand-directed trafficking of the δ-opioid receptor in vivo: two paths toward analgesic tolerance The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 2010; 30(49): 16459-68.
Escande-Beillard Nathalie, Washburn Lorraine, Zekzer Dan, Wu Zhongqi-Phyllis, Eitan Shoshy, Ivkovic Sonja, Lu Yuxin, Dang Hoa, Middleton Blake, Bilousova Tina V, Yoshimura Yoshitaka, Evans Christopher J, Joyce Sebastian, Tian Jide, Kaufman Daniel L   Neurons preferentially respond to self-MHC class I allele products regardless of peptide presented Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 2010; 184(2): 816-23.
Walwyn Wendy M, Miotto Karen A, Evans Christopher J   Opioid pharmaceuticals and addiction: the issues, and research directions seeking solutions Drug and alcohol dependence, 2010; 108(3): 156-65.
Iguchi Martin Y, Evans Christopher J   What neurobiology tells us about addiction Addiction (Abingdon, England), 2010; 105(5): 793-5; discussion 795-6.
Walwyn Wendy, John Scott, Maga Matthew, Evans Christopher J, Hales Tim G   Delta receptors are required for full inhibitory coupling of mu-receptors to voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons Molecular pharmacology, 2009; 76(1): 134-43.
Hofford Rebecca S, Hodgson Stephen R, Roberts Kris W, Bryant Camron D, Evans Christopher J, Eitan Shoshana   Extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in the amygdala mediates elevated plus maze behavior during opioid withdrawal Behavioural pharmacology, 2009; 20(7): 576-83.
Yu Y Joy, Arttamangkul Seksiri, Evans Christopher J, Williams John T, von Zastrow Mark   Neurokinin 1 receptors regulate morphine-induced endocytosis and desensitization of mu-opioid receptors in CNS neurons The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 2009; 29(1): 222-33.
Kieffer Brigitte L, Evans Christopher J   Opioid receptors: from binding sites to visible molecules in vivo Neuropharmacology, 2009; 56 Suppl 1(1): 205-12.
Bryant Camron D, Roberts Kristofer W, Culbertson Christopher S, Le Alan, Evans Christopher J, Fanselow Michael S   Pavlovian conditioning of multiple opioid-like responses in mice Drug and alcohol dependence, 2009; 103(1-2): 74-83.
Marquez Paul, Bebawy David, Lelièvre Vincent, Coûté Anne-Claire, Evans Christopher J, Waschek James A, Lutfy Kabirullah   The role of endogenous PACAP in motor stimulation and conditioned place preference induced by morphine in mice Psychopharmacology, 2009; 204(3): 457-63.
Tan Miao, Walwyn Wendy M, Evans Christopher J, Xie Cui-Wei   p38 MAPK and beta-arrestin 2 mediate functional interactions between endogenous micro-opioid and alpha2A-adrenergic receptors in neurons The Journal of biological chemistry, 2009; 284(10): 6270-81.
Piault Elisabeth, Evans Christopher J, Espindle Derek, Kopp Zoe, Brubaker Linda, Abrams Paul   Development and validation of the Overactive Bladder Satisfaction (OAB-S) Questionnaire Neurourology and urodynamics, 2008; 27(3): 179-90.
Wassum Kate M, Evans Christopher J   International Narcotics Research Conference – 39th Annual Meeting IDrugs : the investigational drugs journal, 2008; 11(9): 646-9.
Gioiosa, L.Chen, X.Watkins, R.Klanfer, N.Bryant, C. D.Evans, C. J.Arnold, A. P.   Sex chromosome complement affects nociception in tests of acute and chronic exposure to morphine in mice Horm Behav, 2008; 53(1): 124-30.
Parthan Anju, Evans Christopher J, Le Kim   Chronic low back pain: epidemiology, economic burden and patient-reported outcomes in the USA Expert review of pharmacoeconomics & outcomes research, 2006; 6(3): 359-69.
Evans Christopher J, Parthan Anju, Le Kim   Economic and humanistic burden of fibromyalgia in the USA Expert review of pharmacoeconomics & outcomes research, 2006; 6(3): 303-14.
Kho, S. T. Lopez, I. A. Evans, C. Ishiyama, A. Ishiyama, G.   Immunolocalization of orphanin FQ in rat cochlea Brain Res, 2006; 1113(1): 146-52.
Bryant Camron D, Roberts Kristofer W, Byun Janet S, Fanselow Michael S, Evans Christopher J   Morphine analgesic tolerance in 129P3/J and 129S6/SvEv mice Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior, 2006; 85(4): 769-79.
Walwyn, W. M. Wei, W. Xie, C. W. Chiu, K. Kieffer, B. L. Evans, C. J. Maidment, N. T.   Mu opioid receptor-effector coupling and trafficking in dorsal root ganglia neurons Neuroscience, 2006; 142(2): 493-503.
Bryant Camron D, Eitan Shoshana, Sinchak Kevin, Fanselow Michael S, Evans Christopher J   NMDA receptor antagonism disrupts the development of morphine analgesic tolerance in male, but not female C57BL/6J mice American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology, 2006; 291(2): R315-26.
Walwyn Wendy, Maidment Nigel T, Sanders Matthew, Evans Christopher J, Kieffer Brigitte L, Hales Tim G   Induction of delta opioid receptor function by up-regulation of membrane receptors in mouse primary afferent neurons Molecular pharmacology, 2005; 68(6): 1688-98.
Evans Christopher J, Trudeau Elyse, Mertzanis Polyxane, Marquis Patrick, Peña Beatriz M, Wong Josephine, Mayne Tracy   Development and validation of the Pain Treatment Satisfaction Scale (PTSS): a patient satisfaction questionnaire for use in patients with chronic or acute pain Pain, 2004; 112(3): 254-66.
Walwyn, W. M. Keith, D. E., Jr. Wei, W. Tan, A. M. Xie, C. W. Evans, C. J. Kieffer, B. L. Maidment, N. T.   Functional coupling, desensitization and internalization of virally expressed mu opioid receptors in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons from mu opioid receptor knockout mice Neuroscience, 2004; 123(1): 111-21.
Evans Christopher J   Health and work productivity assessment: state of the art or state of flux? Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2004; 46(6 Suppl): S3-11.
Evans Christopher J   Secrets of the opium poppy revealed Neuropharmacology, 2004; 47 Suppl 1(6 Suppl): 293-9.
Eitan, S. Bryant, C. D. Saliminejad, N. Yang, Y. C. Vojdani, E. Keith, D., Jr. Polakiewicz, R. Evans, C. J.   Brain region-specific mechanisms for acute morphine-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase modulation and distinct patterns of activation during analgesic tolerance and locomotor sensitization J Neurosci, 2003; 23(23): 8360-9.
Lutfy, K. Eitan, S. Bryant, C. D. Yang, Y. C. Saliminejad, N. Walwyn, W. Kieffer, B. L. Takeshima, H. Carroll, F. I. Maidment, N. T. Evans, C. J.   Buprenorphine-induced antinociception is mediated by mu-opioid receptors and compromised by concomitant activation of opioid receptor-like receptors J Neurosci, 2003; 23(32): 10331-7.
Charles, A. C. Mostovskaya, N. Asas, K. Evans, C. J. Dankovich, M. L. Hales, T. G.   Coexpression of delta-opioid receptors with micro receptors in GH3 cells changes the functional response to micro agonists from inhibitory to excitatory Mol Pharmacol, 2003; 63(1): 89-95.
Li, Y. Eitan, S. Wu, J. Evans, C. J. Kieffer, B. Sun, X. Polakiewicz, R. D.   Morphine induces desensitization of insulin receptor signaling Mol Cell Biol, 2003; 23(17): 6255-66.
Reeve, J. R., Jr. Keire, D. A. Coskun, T. Green, G. M. Evans, C. Ho, F. J. Lee, T. D. Davis, M. T. Shively, J. E. Solomon, T. E.   Synthesis of biologically active canine CCK-58 Regul Pept, 2003; 113(1-3): 71-7.
Arjomand, J. Cole, S. Evans, C. J.   Novel orphanin FQ/nociceptin transcripts are expressed in human immune cells J Neuroimmunol, 2002; 130(1-2): 100-8.
Kieffer Brigitte L, Evans Christopher J   Opioid tolerance-in search of the holy grail Cell, 2002; 108(5): 587-90.
Zaki, P. A. Keith, D. E., Jr. Thomas, J. B. Carroll, F. I. Evans, C. J.   Agonist-, antagonist-, and inverse agonist-regulated trafficking of the delta-opioid receptor correlates with, but does not require, G protein activation J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 2001; 298(3): 1015-20.
Arjomand, J. Evans, C. J.   Differential splicing of transcripts encoding the orphanin FQ/nociceptin precursor J Neurochem, 2001; 77(3): 720-9.
Ishiyama, A. Ishiyama, G. Baloh, R. W. Evans, C. J.   Heroin-induced reversible profound deafness and vestibular dysfunction Addiction, 2001; 96(9): 1363-4.
Piros, E. T. Charles, R. C. Song, L. Evans, C. J. Hales, T. G.   Cloned delta-opioid receptors in GH(3) cells inhibit spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations and prolactin release through K(IR) channel activation J Neurophysiol, 2000; 83(5): 2691-8.
Melone, M. Brecha, N. C. Sternini, C. Evans, C. Conti, F.   Etorphine increases the number of mu-opioid receptor-positive cells in the cerebral cortex Neuroscience, 2000; 100(3): 439-43.
Zaki, P. A. Keith, D. E., Jr. Brine, G. A. Carroll, F. I. Evans, C. J.   Ligand-induced changes in surface mu-opioid receptor number: relationship to G protein activation? J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 2000; 292(3): 1127-34.
Rabizadeh, S. Ye, X. Sperandio, S. Wang, J. J. Ellerby, H. M. Ellerby, L. M. Giza, C. Andrusiak, R. L. Frankowski, H. Yaron, Y. Moayeri, N. N. Rovelli, G. Evans, C. J. Butcher, L. L. Nolan, G. P. Assa-Munt, N. Bredesen, D. E.   Neurotrophin dependence domain: a domain required for the mediation of apoptosis by the p75 neurotrophin receptor J Mol Neurosci, 2000; 15(3): 215-29.
Lo, E. H. Pierce, A. R. Matsumoto, K. Kano, T. Evans, C. J. Newcomb, R.   Alterations in K+ evoked profiles of neurotransmitter and neuromodulator amino acids after focal ischemia-reperfusion Neuroscience, 1998; 83(2): 449-58.
Monteillet-Agius, G. Fein, J. Anton, B. Evans, C. J.   ORL-1 and mu opioid receptor antisera label different fibers in areas involved in pain processing J Comp Neurol, 1998; 399(3): 373-83.
Murray, S. R. Evans, C. J. von Zastrow, M.   Phosphorylation is not required for dynamin-dependent endocytosis of a truncated mutant opioid receptor J Biol Chem, 1998; 273(39): 24987-91.
Unterwald, E. M. Anton, B. To, T. Lam, H. Evans, C. J.   Quantitative immunolocalization of mu opioid receptors: regulation by naltrexone Neuroscience, 1998; 85(3): 897-905.
Keith, D. E. Anton, B. Murray, S. R. Zaki, P. A. Chu, P. C. Lissin, D. V. Monteillet-Agius, G. Stewart, P. L. Evans, C. J. von Zastrow, M.   mu-Opioid receptor internalization: opiate drugs have differential effects on a conserved endocytic mechanism in vitro and in the mammalian brain Mol Pharmacol, 1998; 53(3): 377-84.
Rocha, L. L. Evans, C. J. Maidment, N. T.   Amygdala kindling modifies extracellular opioid peptide content in rat hippocampus measured by microdialysis J Neurochem, 1997; 68(2): 616-24.
Yu, T. P. Fein, J. Phan, T. Evans, C. J. Xie, C. W.   Orphanin FQ inhibits synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation in rat hippocampus Hippocampus, 1997; 7(1): 88-94.
Olive, M. F. Anton, B. Micevych, P. Evans, C. J. Maidment, N. T.   Presynaptic versus postsynaptic localization of mu and delta opioid receptors in dorsal and ventral striatopallidal pathways J Neurosci, 1997; 17(19): 7471-9.
Gylys, K. H. Tran, N. Magendzo, K. Zaki, P. Evans, C. J.   cAMP decreases steady-state levels of delta-opioid receptor mRNA in NG108-15 cells Neuroreport, 1997; 8(9-10): 2369-72.
Sternini, C. Spann, M. Anton, B. Keith, D. E., Jr. Bunnett, N. W. von Zastrow, M. Evans, C. Brecha, N. C.   Agonist-selective endocytosis of mu opioid receptor by neurons in vivo Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1996; 93(17): 9241-6.
Anton, B. Fein, J. To, T. Li, X. Silberstein, L. Evans, C. J.   Immunohistochemical localization of ORL-1 in the central nervous system of the rat J Comp Neurol, 1996; 368(2): 229-51.
Zhu, J. Yin, J. Law, P. Y. Claude, P. A. Rice, K. C. Evans, C. J. Chen, C. Yu, L. Liu-Chen, L. Y.   Irreversible binding of cis-(+)-3-methylfentanyl isothiocyanate to the delta opioid receptor and determination of its binding domain J Biol Chem, 1996; 271(3): 1430-4.
Tian, J. Clare-Salzler, M. Herschenfeld, A. Middleton, B. Newman, D. Mueller, R. Arita, S. Evans, C. Atkinson, M. A. Mullen, Y. Sarvetnick, N. Tobin, A. J. Lehmann, P. V. Kaufman, D. L.   Modulating autoimmune responses to GAD inhibits disease progression and prolongs islet graft survival in diabetes-prone mice Nat Med, 1996; 2(12): 1348-53.
Keith, D. E. Murray, S. R. Zaki, P. A. Chu, P. C. Lissin, D. V. Kang, L. Evans, C. J. von Zastrow, M.   Morphine activates opioid receptors without causing their rapid internalization J Biol Chem, 1996; 271(32): 19021-4.
Keith, D. E., Jr. Evans, C. J.   Mu opioid receptor-like sequences are present throughout vertebrate evolution J Mol Evol, 1996; 43(3): 179-84.
Johnson, J. Chen, T. K. Rickman, D. W. Evans, C. Brecha, N. C.   Multiple gamma-Aminobutyric acid plasma membrane transporters (GAT-1, GAT-2, GAT-3) in the rat retina J Comp Neurol, 1996; 375(2): 212-24.
Li, X. Keith, D. E., Jr. Evans, C. J.   Multiple opioid receptor-like genes are identified in diverse vertebrate phyla FEBS Lett, 1996; 397(1): 25-9.
Rocha, L. Maidment, N. T. Evans, C. J. Ackermann, R. F. Engel, J., Jr.   Opioid peptide release and mu-receptor binding during amygdala kindling in rats: regional discordances Epilepsy Res Suppl, 1996; 12(number): 215-28.
Rocha, L. Briones, M. Ackermann, R. F. Anton, B. Maidment, N. T. Evans, C. J. Engel, J., Jr.   Pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling: early involvement of excitatory and inhibitory systems Epilepsy Res, 1996; 26(1): 105-13.
Trapaidze, N. Keith, D. E. Cvejic, S. Evans, C. J. Devi, L. A.   Sequestration of the delta opioid receptor. Role of the C terminus in agonist-mediated internalization J Biol Chem, 1996; 271(46): 29279-85.
Piros, E. T. Prather, P. L. Law, P. Y. Evans, C. J. Hales, T. G.   Voltage-dependent inhibition of Ca2+ channels in GH3 cells by cloned mu- and delta-opioid receptors Mol Pharmacol, 1996; 50(4): 947-56.
Piros, E. T. Prather, P. L. Loh, H. H. Law, P. Y. Evans, C. J. Hales, T. G.   Ca2+ channel and adenylyl cyclase modulation by cloned mu-opioid receptors in GH3 cells Mol Pharmacol, 1995; 47(5): 1041-9.
Milligan, C. E. Webster, L. Piros, E. T. Evans, C. J. Cunningham, T. J. Levitt, P.   Induction of opioid receptor-mediated macrophage chemotactic activity after neonatal brain injury J Immunol, 1995; 154(12): 6571-81.
Olive, M. F. Bertolucci, M. Evans, C. J. Maidment, N. T.   Microdialysis reveals a morphine-induced increase in pallidal opioid peptide release Neuroreport, 1995; 6(8): 1093-6.
Prather, P. L. McGinn, T. M. Erickson, L. J. Evans, C. J. Loh, H. H. Law, P. Y.   Ability of delta-opioid receptors to interact with multiple G-proteins is independent of receptor density J Biol Chem, 1994; 269(33): 21293-302.
Law, P. Y. McGinn, T. M. Wick, M. J. Erikson, L. J. Evans, C. Loh, H. H.   Analysis of delta-opioid receptor activities stably expressed in CHO cell lines: function of receptor density? J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 1994; 271(3): 1686-94.
Mastrogiacomo, A. Evans, C. J. Gundersen, C. B.   Antipeptide antibodies against a Torpedo cysteine-string protein J Neurochem, 1994; 62(3): 873-80.
Kaufman, D. L. Xia, Y. R. Keith, D. E., Jr. Newman, D. Evans, C. J. Lusis, A. J.   Localization of the delta-opioid receptor gene to mouse chromosome 4 by linkage analysis Genomics, 1994; 19(2): 405-6.
Rocha, L. Maidment, N. T. Evans, C. J. Ackermann, R. F. Engel, J., Jr.   Microdialysis reveals changes in extracellular opioid peptide levels in the amygdala induced by amygdaloid kindling stimulation Exp Neurol, 1994; 126(2): 277-83.
Reeve, J. R., Jr. Eysselein, V. E. Ho, F. J. Chew, P. Vigna, S. R. Liddle, R. A. Evans, C.   Natural and synthetic CCK-58. Novel reagents for studying cholecystokinin physiology Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1994; 713(number): 11-21.
Liu, Y. Schweitzer, E. S. Nirenberg, M. J. Pickel, V. M. Evans, C. J. Edwards, R. H.   Preferential localization of a vesicular monoamine transporter to dense core vesicles in PC12 cells J Cell Biol, 1994; 127(5): 1419-33.
Von Zastrow, M. Keith, D. E., Jr. Evans, C. J.   Agonist-induced state of the delta-opioid receptor that discriminates between opioid peptides and opiate alkaloids Mol Pharmacol, 1993; 44(1): 166-72.
Keith, D. E., Jr. Anton, B. Evans, C. J.   Characterization and mapping of a delta opioid receptor clone from NG108-15 cells Proc West Pharmacol Soc, 1993; 36(number): 299-306.
Ruppert, C. Sandrasagra, A. Anton, B. Evans, C. Schweitzer, E. S. Tobin, A. J.   Rat-1 fibroblasts engineered with GAD65 and GAD67 cDNAs in retroviral vectors produce and release GABA J Neurochem, 1993; 61(2): 768-71.
Evans, C. J. Keith, D. E., Jr. Morrison, H. Magendzo, K. Edwards, R. H.   Cloning of a delta opioid receptor by functional expression Science, 1992; 258(5090): 1952-5.
Madden, J. th Evans, C. J. Tyler, A. N. Esch, F. S. Bohlen, P. Makk, G. Weber, E.   Isolation and characterization of opioid peptides from rabbit cerebellum J Neurochem, 1991; 56(6): 1914-20.
Maidment, N. T. Siddall, B. Rudolph, V. D. Evans, C. J.   Postmortem changes in rat brain extracellular opioid peptides revealed by microdialysis J Neurochem, 1991; 56(6): 1980-4.
Abood, M. E. Eberwine, J. H. Erdelyi, E. Evans, C. J.   Regulation of both preproenkephalin mRNA and its derived opioids by haloperidol–a method for measurement of peptides and mRNA in the same tissue extract Brain Res Mol Brain Res, 1990; 8(3): 243-8.
Tecott, L. H. Rubenstein, J. L. Paxinos, G. Evans, C. J. Eberwine, J. H. Valentino, K. L.   Developmental expression of proenkephalin mRNA and peptides in rat striatum Brain Res Dev Brain Res, 1989; 49(1): 75-86.
Feistner, G. J. Hojrup, P. Evans, C. J. Barofsky, D. F. Faull, K. F. Roepstorff, P.   Mass spectrometric charting of bovine posterior/intermediate pituitary peptides Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1989; 86(16): 6013-7.
Maidment, N. T. Brumbaugh, D. R. Rudolph, V. D. Erdelyi, E. Evans, C. J.   Microdialysis of extracellular endogenous opioid peptides from rat brain in vivo Neuroscience, 1989; 33(3): 549-57.
Stevens, K. E. Leslie, F. M. Evans, C. J. Belluzzi, J. D. Stein, L.   BAM-18: analgesia, hyperalgesia and locomotor effects Neuropeptides, 1988; 12(1): 21-7.
Eberwine, J. H. Barchas, J. D. Hewlett, W. A. Evans, C. J.   Isolation of enzyme cDNA clones by enzyme immunodetection assay: isolation of a peptide acetyltransferase Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1987; 84(5): 1449-53.
Boarder, M. R. Evans, C. Adams, M. Erdelyi, E. Barchas, J. D.   Peptide E and its products, BAM 18 and Leu-enkephalin, in bovine adrenal medulla and cultured chromaffin cells: release in response to stimulation J Neurochem, 1987; 49(6): 1824-32.
Hurlbut, D. E. Evans, C. J. Barchas, J. D. Leslie, F. M.   Pharmacological properties of a proenkephalin A-derived opioid peptide: BAM 18 Eur J Pharmacol, 1987; 138(3): 359-66.
Lorenz, R. G. Tyler, A. N. Faull, K. F. Makk, G. Barchas, J. D. Evans, C. J.   Characterization of endorphins from the pituitary of the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias Peptides, 1986; 7(1): 119-26.
Bartolome, J. V. Bartolome, M. B. Daltner, L. A. Evans, C. J. Barchas, J. D. Kuhn, C. M. Schanberg, S. M.   Effects of beta-endorphin on ornithine decarboxylase in tissues of developing rats: a potential role for this endogenous neuropeptide in the modulation of tissue growth Life Sci, 1986; 38(25): 2355-62.
Stevens, K. E. Leslie, F. M. Evans, C. J. Barchas, J. D. Belluzzi, J. D. Stein, L.   Intraventricular administration of BAM-18: antinociceptive and locomotor activity in the rat NIDA Res Monogr, 1986; 75(number): 446-9.
Kaldany, R. R. Campanelli, J. T. Makk, G. Evans, C. J. Scheller, R. H.   Proteolytic processing of a peptide precursor in Aplysia neuron R14 J Biol Chem, 1986; 261(13): 5751-7.
Hurlbut, D. E. Evans, C. J. Barchas, J. D. Leslie, F. M.   The pharmacological profile of BAM 18 NIDA Res Monogr, 1986; 75(number): 81-4.
Evans, C. J. Erdelyi, E. Hunter, J. Barchas, J. D.   Co-localization and characterization of immunoreactive peptides derived from two opioid precursors in guinea pig adrenal glands J Neurosci, 1985; 5(12): 3423-7.
Lorenz, R. G. Evans, C. J. Barchas, J. D.   Effects of dehydration on pro-dynorphin derived peptides in the neuro-intermediate lobe of the rat pituitary Life Sci, 1985; 37(16): 1523-8.
Evans, C. J. Barchas, J. D. Esch, F. S. Bohlen, P. Weber, E   Isolation and characterization of an endogenous C-terminal fragment of the alpha-neo-endorphin/dynorphin precursor from bovine caudate nucleus J Neurosci, 1985; 5(7): 1803-7.
Roth, K. A. Makk, G. Beck, O. Faull, K. Tatemoto, K. Evans, C. J. Barchas, J. D.   Isolation and characterization of substance P, substance P 5-11, and substance K from two metastatic ileal carcinoids Regul Pept, 1985; 12(3): 185-99.
Wallace, E. F. Weber, E. Barchas, J. D. Evans, C. J.   A putative processing enzyme from Aplysia that cleaves dynorphin A at the single arginine residue Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 1984; 119(1): 415-22.
Bostwick, D. G. Roth, K. A. Evans, C. J. Barchas, J. D. Bensch, K. G.   Gastrin-releasing peptide, a mammalian analog of bombesin, is present in human neuroendocrine lung tumors Am J Pathol, 1984; 117(2): 195-200.
Roth, K. A. Evans, C. J. Weber, E. Barchas, J. D. Bostwick, D. G. Bensch, K. G.   Gastrin-releasing peptide-related peptides in a human malignant lung carcinoid tumor Cancer Res, 1983; 43(11): 5411-5.
Roth, K. A. Evans, C. J. Lorenz, R. G. Weber, E. Barchas, J. D. Chang, J. K.   Identification of gastrin releasing peptide-related substances in guinea pig and rat brain Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 1983; 112(2): 528-36.
Evans, C. J. Erdelyi, E. Weber, E. Barchas, J. D.   Identification of pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides in the human adrenal medulla Science, 1983; 221(4614): 957-60.
Boarder, M. R. Weber, E. Evans, C. J. Erdelyi, E. Barchas, J.   Measurement of total opioid peptides in rat brain and pituitary by radioimmunoassay directed at the alpha-N-acetyl derivative J Neurochem, 1983; 40(16): 1517-22.
Weber, E. Esch, F. S. Bohlen, P. Paterson, S. Corbett, A. D. McKnight, A. T. Kosterlitz, H. W. Barchas, J. D. Evans, C. J.   Metorphamide: isolation, structure, and biologic activity of an amidated opioid octapeptide from bovine brain Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1983; 80(23): 7362-6.
Mues, G. Fuchs, I. Wei, E. T. Weber, E. Evans, C. J. Barchas, J. D. Chang, J. K.   Blood pressure elevation in rats by peripheral administration of Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met-Arg-Phe and the invertebrate neuropeptide, Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 Life Sci, 1982; 31(23): 2555-61.
Weber, E. Evans, C. J. Chang, J. K. Barchas, J. D.   Brain distributions of alpha-neo-endorphin and beta-neo-endorphin: evidence for regional processing differences Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 1982; 108(1): 81-8.
Weber, E. Evans, C. J. Barchas, J. D.   Mapping of hypothalamic opioid peptide neurons by a novel immunohistochemical technique: relation to alpha-Neo-endorphin and vasopressin systems Adv Biochem Psychopharmacol, 1982; 33(number): 519-26.
Weber, E. Evans, C. J. Barchas, J. D.   Predominance of the amino-terminal octapeptide fragment of dynorphin in rat brain regions Nature, 1982; 299(5878): 77-9.
Weber, E. Evans, C. J. Barchas, J. D.   Acetylated and nonacetylated forms of beta-endorphin in rat brain and pituitary Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 1981; 103(3): 982-9.
Weber, E.Truscott, R. J.Evans, C.Sullivan, S.Angwin, P.Barchas, J. D.   Alpha-N-acetyl beta-endorphins in the pituitary: immunohistochemical localization using antibodies raised against dynorphin(1-13) J Neurochem, 1981; 36(6): 1977-85.
Evans, C. J. Weber, E. Barchas, J. D.   Isolation and characterization of alpha-N-acetyl beta-endorphin(1-26) from the rat posterior/intermediate pituitary lobe Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 1981; 102(3): 897-904.
Weber, E. Evans, C. J. Samuelsson, S. J. Barchas, J. D.   Novel peptide neuronal system in rat brain and pituitary Science, 1981; 214(4526): 1248-51.
Austen, B. M.Evans, C. J.Smyth, D. G.   Susceptibility of neuroactive peptides to aminopeptidase digestion is related to molecular size Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 1979; 91(4): 1211-7.

Paul Micevych, Ph.D.


Research efforts in the Micevych laboratory involve understanding the cellular and molecular events underlying estrogen action on neurons and glial cells. Estrogen has profound effects on cognitive function and neuroprotection, as well as, reproductive functions. Estrogen affects the expression and activity of various neuropeptides and sex steroids. In particular they have focused on regulation mu-opioid and nociceptin receptors in the CNS regulation of sexual behavior. Recent experiments have demonstrated the synthesis of progesterone in the brain, its regulation by estrogen and physiologic functions of neuroprogesterone. RT-PCR and calcium imaging experiments in neurons and astrocytes have been used to elucidate the mechanisms of estrogen rapid signaling in both glial cells and neurons. The Micevych laboratory has demonstrated that estrogen can modulate nociceptive signaling through rapid actions on primary sensory neurons demonstrating a novel mechanism of estrogen modulation of pain. Additionally, the Micevych Laboratory has been studying the neuroprotective action of estrogen in the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Estrogen activates the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) to ameliorate a hallmark of ParkinsonA?s disease A? the neurodegeneration of dopamine neurons. Significantly, estrogen or IGF-1 is efficacious after either central or peripheral administration. Together these experiments underscore the broad range of estrogen signaling influencing both physiology and pathology.

Ketema Paul, Ph.D.


After receiving a bachelor’s degree in biology from Howard University I went on to study neurobiology and circadian biology at Georgia State University in Atlanta, Georgia where I received my doctorate in 2003. I completed a postdoctoral fellowship at Northwestern University in Evanston Illinois in 2006 at the Center for Sleep and Circadian Biology under the guidance of Dr. Fred Turek, after which I accepted a faculty position at the Morehouse School of Medicine (MSM). I spent ten years at MSM and joined the faculty at UCLA in 2016.

Research Interests

My work examines the genetic regulation of sleep and more importantly, how genetic heterogeneity influences the ability to recover from sleep loss. My research program currently has two foci: 1) to determine if disruptions of biological timing result in sleep-wake disorders and if so, which specific genes are involved and, 2) to determine if sex differences in the risk and severity of sleep abnormalities are chromosomally driven. My lab has recently undertaken a forward genetics approach to identify novel sleep genes. We have characterized a variety of sleep phenotypes in inbred mouse strains in sleep-replete and sleep-deprived conditions. We are expanding this dataset to provide sufficient statistical power for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and subsequent follow-up studies. This endeavor combines a well-established paradigm of comparative phenotyping of a genetically tractable animal model with powerful genetic mapping tools to identify novel sleep-regulatory genes. Consequently, these experiments will not only identify new sleep genes, they will also help verify and clarify previously mapped genes whose roles are not yet clearly defined.



B.S., Biology, Howard University 1994
Ph.D., Biology, Georgia State University 2003


Selected Publications

Ehlen, J.C., Brager, A.J., Baggs, J., Pinckney, L., Gray, C.L., Debruyne, J.P., Esser, K.A., Takahashi, J.S., Paul, K.N., “Bmal1 function in skeletal muscle regulates sleep”, eLife, 1-15 (2017) .

Clark, K.P., Ehlen, J.C., Paul, K.N., “Race and Gender Disparities in Sleep-Disordered Breathing”, Journal of Sleep Disorders: Treatment & Care, 6 (1): 1-4 (2017) .

Brager A.J., Heemstra, L., Bhambra, R., Ehlen, J.C., Esser, K., Paul, K.N., Novak, C. M., “Homeostatic effects of exercise and sleep on metabolic processes in mice with an overexpressed skeletal muscle clock”, Biochimie, 132 : 161-165 (2017) .

Brager, A.J., Yang, T., Ehlen, J.C., Simon, R.P., Meller, R., Paul, K.N., “Sleep is critical for remote preconditioning-induce neuroprotection”, Sleep, 39 : 2033-2040 (2016) .

Ehlen, J.C., Jones, K.A., Pinckney, L., Gray, C.L. Burette, S., Weinberg, R.J., Evans, J.A., Brager, A., Zylka, M.J., Paul, K.N., Philphot, B.D., Debruyne, J.P, “Maternal Ube3a loss disrupts sleep homeostasis but leaves circadian rhythmicity largely intact”, Sleep, 35 : 13587-13598 (2015) .

Evans, J.A., Suen, T-C., Calif, B., Mitchell, A., Castanon-Cervantes, O., Baker, K.M., Kloehn, I., Baba, K., Teubner, B.J.W., Ehlen, J.C., Paul, K.N., Bartness, T.J., Tosini, G., Leise, T.L., Davidson, A.J, “Shell neurons of the master circadian clock coordinate the phase of tissue clocks throughout the brain and body”, Sleep, 13 : 1-15 (2015) .

Jefferson, F., Ehlen, J.C., Williams, N.S., Paul, K.N, “A dopamine D2-receptor agonist attenuates the ability of stress to alter sleep in mice”, Sleep, 155 : 4411-4421 (2014) .

Ehlen, J.C., Jefferson, F. Brager, A.J., Benveniste, M., Paul, K.N., “Period-Amplitude Analysis Reveals Wake-Dependent Changes in the Electroencephalogram during Sleep Deprivation”, Sleep, 36 : 1723-1735 (2013) .

Brager, A.J., Ehlen, J.C., Castanon-Cervantes, O., Natarajan, D., Delisser, P., Davidson, A., Paul, K.N, “Sleep loss and inflammatory markers under chronic environmental circadian disruption”, Sleep, 8 : 1-8 (2013) .

Ehlen, J.C., Hesse S., Pinckney, L., Paul, K.N, “Sex chromosomes regulate nighttime sleep propensity during recovery from sleep loss”, Sleep, 8 : 1-6 (2013) .