Posts classified under: Computational Neuroscience

James Bisley, Ph.D.

Biography

Dr Bisley received his Ph.D. from the University of Melbourne in Australia where he studied the peripheral somatosensory system. He did his first post-doc at the University of Rochester working with Dr Tatiana Pasternak, where he studied the neural mechanisms underlying memory for motion. In 1999, he went to Washington, DC where he worked with Dr Michael E. Goldberg at Georgetown University and the National Eye Institute, studying the neural mechanisms underlying visuo-spatial attention. Dr Bisley moved to Columbia University with Dr Goldberg in 2002 and joined UCLA in 2006.

Aaron Blaisdell, Ph.D.

Biography

After receiving his BA and MA in Biological Anthropology (at SUNY Stony Brook and Kent State University, respectively), Dr. Blaisdell realized that animal cognition was even more interesting than dead humans. So he trekked on over to SUNY Binghamton for his Ph.D. in Experimental Psychology with Dr. Ralph Miller, where he studied learning, memory, and temporal cognition in the rat. This was followed by a brief stint as an NRSA Postdoctoral Fellow with Dr. Robert Cook, an expert on Avian Visual Cognition at Tufts University, where he learned how pigeons perceive and think about the world. Since 2001, Dr. Blaisdell has emigrated to the climatological and cultural paradise of sunny LA as Professor in Learning & Behavior and Behavioral Neuroscience in the UCLA Psychology Department. He presides over a comparative cognition lab, studying cognitive processes in rats, pigeons, hermit crabs, and humans. His lab website is http://pigeonrat.psych.ucla.edu.

Publications

A selected list of publications:

Leising Kenneth J, Wong Jared, Blaisdell Aaron P   Extinction and spontaneous recovery of spatial behavior in pigeons Journal of experimental psychology. Animal learning and cognition, 2015; 41(4): 371-7.
Ping Xiaoge, Lee Ji Sun, Garlick Dennis, Jiang Zhigang, Blaisdell Aaron P   Behavioral evidence illuminating the visual abilities of the terrestrial Caribbean hermit crab Coenobita clypeatus Behavioural processes, 2015; 118(4): 47-58.
Leising Kenneth J, Wong Jared, Ruprecht Chad M, Blaisdell Aaron P   Blocking between landmarks during 2-D (touchscreen) and 3-D (ARENA) search tasks with pigeons Learning & behavior, 2014; 42(4): 357-64.
Blaisdell Aaron P, Lau Yan Lam Matthew, Telminova Ekatherina, Lim Hwee Cheei, Fan Boyang, Fast Cynthia D, Garlick Dennis, Pendergrass David C   Food quality and motivation: a refined low-fat diet induces obesity and impairs performance on a progressive ratio schedule of instrumental lever pressing in rats Physiology & behavior, 2014; 128: 220-5.
Bouchekioua Youcef, Miller Holly C, Craddock Paul, Blaisdell Aaron P, Molet Mikael   Spatial integration of boundaries in a 3D virtual environment Acta psychologica, 2013; 144(2): 316-23.
Watanabe Noelle M, Stahlman W David, Blaisdell Aaron P, Garlick Dennis, Fast Cynthia D, Blumstein Daniel T   Quantifying personality in the terrestrial hermit crab: different measures, different inferences Behavioural processes, 2012; 91(2): 133-40.
Biedermann Traci, Garlick Dennis, Blaisdell Aaron P   Food choice in the laboratory pigeon Behavioural processes, 2012; 91(1): 129-32.
Waldmann Michael R, Schmid Martina, Wong Jared, Blaisdell Aaron P   Rats distinguish between absence of events and lack of evidence in contingency learning Animal cognition, 2012; 15(5): 979-90.
Ryan Kelsea M, Blumstein Daniel T, Blaisdell Aaron P, Stahlman W David   Stimulus concordance and risk-assessment in hermit crabs (Coenobita clypeatus): implications for attention Behavioural processes, 2012; 91(1): 26-9.
Leising Kenneth J, Sawa Kosuke, Blaisdell Aaron P   Factors that influence negative summation in a spatial-search task with pigeons Behavioural processes, 2012; 90(3): 357-63.
Cook Robert G, Katz Jeffrey S, Blaisdell Aaron P   Temporal properties of visual search in pigeon target localization Journal of experimental psychology. Animal behavior processes, 2012; 38(2): 209-16.
Fast Cynthia D, Blaisdell Aaron P   Rats are sensitive to ambiguity Psychonomic bulletin & review, 2011; 18(6): 1230-7.
Leising Kenneth J, Garlick Dennis, Blaisdell Aaron P   Overshadowing between landmarks on the touchscreen and in arena with pigeons Journal of experimental psychology. Animal behavior processes, 2011; 37(4): 488-94.
Stahlman W David, Chan Alvin Aaden Yim-Hol, Blumstein Daniel T, Fast Cynthia D, Blaisdell Aaron P   Auditory stimulation dishabituates anti-predator escape behavior in hermit crabs (Coenobita clypeatus) Behavioural processes, 2011; 88(1): 7-11.
Racey Deborah, Young Michael E, Garlick Dennis, Pham Jennifer Ngoc-Minh, Blaisdell Aaron P   Pigeon and human performance in a multi-armed bandit task in response to changes in variable interval schedules Learning & behavior, 2011; 39(3): 245-58.
Garlick Dennis, Gant Dana J, Brakel Linda A W, Blaisdell Aaron P   Attributional and relational processing in pigeons Frontiers in psychology, 2011; 2(3): 14.
Stahlman W David, Blaisdell Aaron P   The Modulation of Operant Variation by the Probability, Magnitude, and Delay of Reinforcement Learning and motivation, 2011; 42(3): 221-236.
Fridman Gene Y, Blair Hugh T, Blaisdell Aaron P, Judy Jack W   Perceived intensity of somatosensory cortical electrical stimulation Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale, 2010; 203(3): 499-515.
Stahlman W David, Young Michael E, Blaisdell Aaron P   Response variability in pigeons in a Pavlovian task Learning & behavior : a Psychonomic Society publication, 2010; 38(2): 111-8.
Stahlman W David, Roberts Seth, Blaisdell Aaron P   Effect of reward probability on spatial and temporal variation Journal of experimental psychology. Animal behavior processes, 2010; 36(1): 77-91.
Leising Kenneth J, Garlick Dennis, Parenteau Michael, Blaisdell Aaron P   Behavioral research in pigeons with ARENA: an automated remote environmental navigation apparatus Behavioural processes, 2009; 81(1): 105-13.
Stahlman W David, Blaisdell Aaron P   Blocking of spatial control by landmarks in rats Behavioural processes, 2009; 81(1): 114-8.
Leising Kenneth J, Blaisdell Aaron P   Associative Basis of Landmark Learning and Integration in Vertebrates Comparative cognition & behavior reviews, 2009; 4(1): 80-102.
Leising Kenneth J, Wong Jared, Waldmann Michael R, Blaisdell Aaron P   The special status of actions in causal reasoning in rats Journal of experimental psychology. General, 2008; 137(3): 514-27.
Badelt Steven W, Blaisdell Aaron P   Capacitive sensors for detecting proximity and response Behavior research methods, 2008; 40(2): 613-21.
Leising Kenneth J, Sawa Kosuke, Blaisdell Aaron P   Temporal integration in Pavlovian appetitive conditioning in rats Learning & behavior : a Psychonomic Society publication, 2007; 35(1): 11-8.
Nakajima Sadahiko, Takahashi Kosuke, Blaisdell Aaron P   An assessment of context-specificity of the CS-preexposure effect in Pavlovian excitatory and inhibitory conditioning Behavioural processes, 2006; 73(1): 84-91.
Cook Robert G, Blaisdell Aaron P   Short-term item memory in successive same-different discriminations Behavioural processes, 2006; 72(3): 255-64.
Blaisdell Aaron P, Sawa Kosuke, Leising Kenneth J, Waldmann Michael R   Causal reasoning in rats Science (New York, N.Y.), 2006; 311(5763): 1020-2.
Roper Karen L, Chaponis Deviney M, Blaisdell Aaron P   Transfer of directed-forgetting cues across discrimination tasks with pigeons Psychonomic bulletin & review, 2005; 12(6): 1005-10.
Sawa Kosuke, Leising Kenneth J, Blaisdell Aaron P   Sensory preconditioning in spatial learning using a touch screen task in pigeons Journal of experimental psychology. Animal behavior processes, 2005; 31(3): 368-75.
Blaisdell, A. P.   Mechanism through methodology: No madness in the method, International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2005; 18: 23-27.
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Cook Robert G, Levison Deborah G, Gillett Sarah R, Blaisdell Aaron P   Capacity and limits of associative memory in pigeons Psychonomic bulletin & review, 2005; 12(2): 350-8.
Blaisdell Aaron P, Cook Robert G   Two-item same-different concept learning in pigeons Learning & behavior : a Psychonomic Society publication, 2005; 33(1): 67-77.
Blaisdell Aaron P, Cook Robert G   Integration of spatial maps in pigeons Animal cognition, 2005; 8(1): 7-16.
Denniston James C, Blaisdell Aaron P, Miller Ralph R   Temporal coding in conditioned inhibition: analysis of associative structure of inhibition Journal of experimental psychology. Animal behavior processes, 2004; 30(3): 190-202.
Chang Raymond C, Blaisdell Aaron P, Miller Ralph R   Backward conditioning: mediation by the context Journal of experimental psychology. Animal behavior processes, 2003; 29(3): 171-83.
Blaisdell Aaron P   The S-R information stream: where’s the filter? Integrative physiological and behavioral science : the official journal of the Pavlovian Society, 2003; 38(2): 146-65.
Denniston, J. C., Savastano, H. I., Blaisdell, A. P., & Miller, R. R.   Cue competition as a retrieval deficit Learning and Motivation, 2003; 34: 1-31.
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Cook, R. G., Shaw, R., & Blaisdell, A. P.   Dynamic Object Perception by Pigeons: Discrimination of Action in Video Presentations Animal Cognition, 2001; 4: 137-146.
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Blaisdell, A.P., Denniston, J. C., & Miller, R. R.   Recovery from the Overexpectation Effect: Contrasting Performance-focused and Acquisition-focused Models of Retrospective Revaluation Animal Learning & Behavior, 2001; 29: 367-380.
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Blaisdell, A.P., Denniston, J. C., Savastano, H. I., & Miller, R. R.   Counterconditioning of an Overshadowed Cue Attenuates Overshadowing of Aversive Associations Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 2000; 26: 74-86.
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Blaisdell, A. P., Savastano, H. I., & Miller, R. R.   Overshadowing of Explicitly Unpaired Conditioned Inhibition is Disrupted by Preexposure to the Overshadowed Inhibitor Animal Learning & Behavior, 1999; 27: 346-357.
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Blaisdell, A. P., Gunther, L. M., & Miller, R. R.   Recovery from Blocking Achieved by Extinguishing the Blocking CS Animal Learning & Behavior, 1999; 27: 63-76.
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Blaisdell, AP Denniston, JC Miller, RR   Posttraining shifts in the overshadowing stimulus-unconditioned stimulus interval alleviates the overshadowing deficit Journal of experimental psychology. Animal behavior processes. , 1999; 25(1): 18-27.
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Blaisdell, AP Bristol, AS Gunther, LM Miller, RR   Overshadowing and latent inhibition counteract each other: support for the comparator hypothesis Journal of experimental psychology. Animal behavior processes. , 1998; 24(3): 335-51.
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Friedman, B., Blaisdell, A. P., Escobar, M. E., & Miller, R. R.   Comparator Mechanisms and Conditioned Inhibition: CS Preexposure Disrupts Pavlovian Conditioned Inhibition but not Explicitly Unpaired Inhibition Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 1998; 24: 453-466.
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Denniston, J. C., Blaisdell, A. P., & Miller, R. R.   Temporal Coding Affects Transfer of Serial and Simultaneous Inhibitors Animal Learning & Behavior, 1998; 26: 336-350.
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Blaisdell, A.P., Denniston, J. C., & Miller, R. R.   Temporal Encoding as a Determinant of Overshadowing Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 1998; 24: 72-83.
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Blaisdell, A.P., Denniston, J. C., & Miller, R. R.   Unblocking with Qualitative Change of Unconditioned Stimulus Learning and Motivation, 1997; 28: 268-279.
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Avishek Adhikari, Ph.D.

Biography

Dr. Adhikari joined UCLA’s Psychology Department in 2016, following postdoctoral training at Stanford University with Prof. Karl Deisseroth and Ph.D. studies at Columbia University with Prof. Joshua A. Gordon and Prof. Rene Hen.

Dr. Adhikari’s lab investigates how the brain coordinates the constellation of changes related to emotional behaviors, with a focus on fear and anxiety. These multi-faceted changes involve complex and dynamic adaptations in hormonal, physiological and behavioral realms. Dr. Adhikari dissects how interactions between different brain structures control these processes, seeking insights that shed light on the neural basis of pathological anxiety disorders and adaptive aversion to danger. To do so we use a combination of powerful techniques, including electrophysiology, behavioral assays, optogenetics and calcium imaging to monitor and control neural activity and behavior.

Learn more about our research at our lab website

Publications

A selected list of publications:

Ye Li, Allen William E, Thompson Kimberly R, Tian Qiyuan, Hsueh Brian, Ramakrishnan Charu, Wang Ai-Chi, Jennings Joshua H, Adhikari Avishek, Halpern Casey H, Witten Ilana B, Barth Alison L, Luo Liqun, McNab Jennifer A, Deisseroth Karl   Wiring and Molecular Features of Prefrontal Ensembles Representing Distinct Experiences Cell, 2016; 165(7): 1776-88.
Adhikari Avishek, Lerner Talia N, Finkelstein Joel, Pak Sally, Jennings Joshua H, Davidson Thomas J, Ferenczi Emily, Gunaydin Lisa A, Mirzabekov Julie J, Ye Li, Kim Sung-Yon, Lei Anna, Deisseroth Karl   Basomedial amygdala mediates top-down control of anxiety and fear Nature, 2015; 527(7577): 179-85.
Adhikari Avishek   Distributed circuits underlying anxiety Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience, 2014; 8(7): 112.
Gunaydin Lisa A, Grosenick Logan, Finkelstein Joel C, Kauvar Isaac V, Fenno Lief E, Adhikari Avishek, Lammel Stephan, Mirzabekov Julie J, Airan Raag D, Zalocusky Kelly A, Tye Kay M, Anikeeva Polina, Malenka Robert C, Deisseroth Karl   Natural neural projection dynamics underlying social behavior Cell, 2014; 157(7): 1535-51.
Kim Sung-Yon, Adhikari Avishek, Lee Soo Yeun, Marshel James H, Kim Christina K, Mallory Caitlin S, Lo Maisie, Pak Sally, Mattis Joanna, Lim Byung Kook, Malenka Robert C, Warden Melissa R, Neve Rachael, Tye Kay M, Deisseroth Karl   Diverging neural pathways assemble a behavioural state from separable features in anxiety Nature, 2013; 496(7444): 219-23.
Tye Kay M, Mirzabekov Julie J, Warden Melissa R, Ferenczi Emily A, Tsai Hsing-Chen, Finkelstein Joel, Kim Sung-Yon, Adhikari Avishek, Thompson Kimberly R, Andalman Aaron S, Gunaydin Lisa A, Witten Ilana B, Deisseroth Karl   Dopamine neurons modulate neural encoding and expression of depression-related behaviour Nature, 2013; 493(7433): 537-41.
Warden Melissa R, Selimbeyoglu Aslihan, Mirzabekov Julie J, Lo Maisie, Thompson Kimberly R, Kim Sung-Yon, Adhikari Avishek, Tye Kay M, Frank Loren M, Deisseroth Karl   A prefrontal cortex-brainstem neuronal projection that controls response to behavioural challenge Nature, 2012; 492(7429): 428-32.
Nason Malcolm W, Adhikari Avishek, Bozinoski Marjan, Gordon Joshua A, Role Lorna W   Disrupted activity in the hippocampal-accumbens circuit of type III neuregulin 1 mutant mice Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 2011; 36(2): 488-96.
Adhikari Avishek, Sigurdsson Torfi, Topiwala Mihir A, Gordon Joshua A   Cross-correlation of instantaneous amplitudes of field potential oscillations: a straightforward method to estimate the directionality and lag between brain areas Journal of neuroscience methods, 2010; 191(2): 191-200.
Resende Rodrigo R, da Costa José L, Kihara Alexandre H, Adhikari Avishek, Lorençon Eudes   Intracellular Ca2+ regulation during neuronal differentiation of murine embryonal carcinoma and mesenchymal stem cells Stem cells and development, 2010; 19(3): 379-94.
Adhikari Avishek, Topiwala Mihir A, Gordon Joshua A   Synchronized activity between the ventral hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex during anxiety Neuron, 2010; 65(2): 257-69.
Resende Rodrigo R, Adhikari Avishek   Cholinergic receptor pathways involved in apoptosis, cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation Cell communication and signaling : CCS, 2009; 7(2): 20.
Resende Rodrigo R, Gomes Katia N, Adhikari Avishek, Britto Luiz R G, Ulrich Henning   Mechanism of acetylcholine-induced calcium signaling during neuronal differentiation of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells in vitro Cell calcium, 2008; 43(2): 107-21.
Bechara Etelvino J H, Dutra Fernando, Cardoso Vanessa E S, Sartori Adriano, Olympio Kelly P K, Penatti Carlos A A, Adhikari Avishek, Assunção Nilson A   The dual face of endogenous alpha-aminoketones: pro-oxidizing metabolic weapons Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Toxicology & pharmacology : CBP, 2008; 146(1-2): 88-110.
Adhikari Avishek, Penatti Carlos A A, Resende Rodrigo R, Ulrich Henning, Britto Luiz R G, Bechara Etelvino J H   5-Aminolevulinate and 4, 5-dioxovalerate ions decrease GABA(A) receptor density in neuronal cells, synaptosomes and rat brain Brain research, 2006; 1093(1): 95-104.

Dean Buonomano, Ph.D.

Biography

NEURAL DYNAMICS: THE NEURAL BASIS OF LEARNING AND MEMORY AND TEMPORAL PROCESSING Behavior and cognition are not the product of isolated neurons, but rather emerge from the dynamics of interconnected neurons embedded in complex recurrent networks. Significant progress has been made towards understanding cellular and synaptic properties in isolation, as well as in establishing which areas of the brain are active during specific tasks. However, elucidating how the activity of hundreds of thousands of neurons within local cortical circuits underlie computations remains an elusive and fundamental goal in neuroscience. The primary goal of my laboratory is to understand how functional computations emerge from networks of neurons. One computation we are particularly interested in is how the brain tells time. Temporal processing refers to your ability to distinguish the interval and duration of sensory stimuli, and is a fundamental component of speech and music perception. To answer these questions the main approaches in my laboratory involve: (1) In Vitro Electrophysiology: Using acute and chronic brain slices we study the spatio-temporal dynamics of cortical circuits, as well as the learning rules that allow networks to develop, organize and perform computations ??? that is, to learn. (2) Computer Simulations: Computer models are used to simulate how networks perform computations, as well as test and generate predictions in parallel with our experimental research. (3) Human Psychophysics: We also use human pyschophysical experiments to characterize learning and generalization of temporal tasks, such as interval discrimination.

Publications

A selected list of publications:

Goel Anubhuti, Buonomano Dean V   Timing as an intrinsic property of neural networks: evidence from in vivo and in vitro experiments Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 2014; 369(1637): 20120460.
Laje Rodrigo, Buonomano Dean V   Robust timing and motor patterns by taming chaos in recurrent neural networks Nature neuroscience, 2013; 16(7): 925-33.
Buonomano Dean V, Laje Rodrigo   Population clocks: motor timing with neural dynamics Trends in cognitive sciences, 2010; 14(12): 520-7.
Johnson Hope A, Goel Anubhuthi, Buonomano Dean V   Neural dynamics of in vitro cortical networks reflects experienced temporal patterns Nature neuroscience, 2010; 13(8): 917-9.
Liu Jian K, Buonomano Dean V   Embedding multiple trajectories in simulated recurrent neural networks in a self-organizing manner The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 2009; 29(42): 13172-81.
Buonomano Dean V   Harnessing chaos in recurrent neural networks Neuron, 2009; 63(4): 423-5.
Buonomano Dean V, Bramen Jennifer, Khodadadifar Mahsa   Influence of the interstimulus interval on temporal processing and learning: testing the state-dependent network model Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 2009; 364(1525): 1865-73.
Buonomano Dean V, Maass Wolfgang   State-dependent computations: spatiotemporal processing in cortical networks Nature reviews. Neuroscience, 2009; 10(2): 113-25.
Johnson Hope A, Buonomano Dean V   A method for chronic stimulation of cortical organotypic cultures using implanted electrodes Journal of neuroscience methods, 2009; 176(2): 136-43.
van Wassenhove V, Buonomano DV, Shimojo S, Shams L.   Distortions of subjective time perception within and across senses, PLoS ONE, 2008; 3(1): e1437.
Johnson, Hope A. Buonomano, Dean V.   Development and Plasticity of Spontaneous Activity and Up States in Cortical Organotypic Slices J. Neurosci, 2007; 27(22): 5915-5925.
Buonomano, D. V.   The biology of time across different scales Nat Chem Biol, 2007; 3(10): 594-7.
Karmarkar, U. R. Buonomano, D. V.   Timing in the absence of clocks: encoding time in neural network states Neuron, 2007; 53(3): 427-38.
Karmarkar, U. R. Buonomano, D. V.   Different forms of homeostatic plasticity are engaged with distinct temporal profiles, Eur J Neurosci, 2006; 23(6): 1575-84.
Eagleman, D. M. Tse, P. U. Buonomano, D. Janssen, P. Nobre, A. C. Holcombe, A. O.   Time and the brain: how subjective time relates to neural time, J Neurosci, 2005; 25(45): 10369-71.
Dong, H. W. Buonomano, D. V.   A technique for repeated recordings in cortical organotypic slices, J Neurosci Methods, 2005; 146(1): 69-75.
Buonomano, D. V.   A learning rule for the emergence of stable dynamics and timing in recurrent networks, J Neurophysiol, 2005; 94(4): 2275-83.
Marder, C. P. Buonomano, D. V.   Timing and balance of inhibition enhance the effect of long-term potentiation on cell firing, J Neurosci, 2004; 24(40): 8873-84.
Mauk, M. D. Buonomano, D. V.   The Neural Basis of Temporal Processing, Annual Rev. Neuroscience, 2004; 27: 304-340.
Karmarkar, U. R. Buonomano, D. V.   Temporal specificity of perceptual learning in an auditory discrimination task, Learn Mem, 2003; 10(2): 141-7.
Buonomano, D. V.   Timing of Neural Responses in Cortical Organotypic Slices, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2003; 100: 4897-4902.
Marder, C. P. Buonomano, D. V.   Differential effects of short- and long-term potentiation on cell firing in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, J Neurosci, 2003; 23(1): 112-21.
Karmarkar, U. R. Buonomano, D. V.   A model of spike-timing dependent plasticity: one or two coincidence detectors?, J Neurophysiol, 2002; 88(1): 507-13.
Buonomano, D. V. Karmarkar, U. R.   How do we tell time?, Neuroscientist, 2002; 8(1): 42-51.
Karmarkar, U. R. Najarian, M. T. Buonomano, D. V.   Mechanisms and significance of spike-timing dependent plasticity, Biol Cybern, 2002; 87(5-6): 373-82.
Buonomano, D. V.   Decoding temporal information: a model based on short-term synaptic plasticity, J Neurosci, 2000; 20: 1129-1141.
Buonomano, D. V.   Distinct functional types of associative long-term potentiation in neocortical and hippocampal pyramidal neurons, J Neurosci, 1999; 19: 6748-6754.
Buonomano, D. V. Merzenich, M.   A neural network model of temporal code generation and position-invariant pattern recognition, Neural Comput, 1999; 11(1): 103-16.
Buonomano, D. V. Merzenich, M. M.   Cortical plasticity: from synapses to maps, Annual Rev. Neuroscience, 1998; 21: 149-186.
Buonomano, D. V. Merzenich, M. M.   Temporal information transformed into a spatial code by a neural network with realistic properties, Science, 1995; 267: 1028-30.
Buonomano, D. V. Byrne, J. H.   Long-term synaptic changes produced by a cellular analog of classical conditioning in Aplysia, Science, 1990; 249(4967): 420-3.