Posts classified under: Neurosurgery

Christopher Giza, M.D.


Christopher Giza graduated from Dartmouth College, received his M.D. from West Virginia University and completed his internship at the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Giza then trained in Adult and Pediatric Neurology at UCLA, after which he worked on the Yosemite Search and Rescue team. In 1998, he returned to UCLA and joined the Brain Injury Research Center. Dr. Giza leads the Pediatric TBI program at UCLA. He traveled to Afghanistan in 2011 as a civilian advisor to the Department of Defense and in 2012 established UCLA BrainSPORT, a comprehensive sports concussion/mild TBI program for prevention, outreach, research and treatment. In 2012, he received the “Professional in the Field Award” from the Brain Injury Association of California. Dr. Giza co-Chaired the American Academy of Neurology’s committee that developed an evidence-based Practice Guideline for Management of Sports Concussions in 2013. He serves on the Center for Disease Control’s Pediatric mild TBI committee, the NCAA Concussion Task Force, the Major League Soccer Concussion Program Committee and has served as Vice-Chair for the California State Athletic Commission. He directs the NFL Neurological Care Program at UCLA. He is currently Professor of Pediatric Neurology and Neurosurgery at the David Geffen School of Medicine and Mattel Children’s Hospital – UCLA. His research interests include neuroplasticity, recovery from injury, sport-related concussions, post-traumatic epilepsy and brain development.


A selected list of publications:

Madikians A and Giza CC.   A Clinician’s Guide to the Pathophysiology of Traumatic Brain Injury, Indian Journal of Neurotrauma, 2006; 3(1): 9-17.
Giza, CC.   Better Never Than Late: Lasting Effects of Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury, Indian Journal of Neurotrauma, 2006; 3(1): 19-26.
Prins ML, Giza CC   Induction of monocarboxylate transporter-2 expression and ketone transport following traumatic brain injury in juvenile and adult rats, Developmental Neuroscience, 2006; 28(4-5): 447-56.
Giza CC, Santa Maria NS, and Hovda DA.   N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit changes following traumatic injury to the developing brain, Journal of Neurotrauma, 2006; 23(6): 950-61.
Bhidayashiri R, Waters M and Giza CC.   Neurological Differential Diagnosis: A Prioritized Approach, , 2005; .
Bhidayasiri R and Giza CC.   Images in Pediatric Neurosurgery – Subdural hematoma and retinal hemorrhages in an infant: accidental or non-accidental injury?, Pediatric Neurosurgery, 2004; 40(3): 147-8.
Osteen CL, Giza CC and Hovda DA.   Injury-induced alterations in NMDA receptor subunit composition contribute to prolonged 45calcium accumulation following lateral fluid percussion, Neuroscience, 2004; 128(2): 305-322.
Giza CC, Prins ML, Hovda DA, Herschman HR and Feldman JD.   Genes preferentially induced by depolarization after concussive brain injury: Effects of age and injury severity, Journal of Neurotrauma, 2002; 19(4): 387-402.
Sánchez Sarah M, Arndt Daniel H, Carpenter Jessica L, Chapman Kevin E, Cornett Karen M, Dlugos Dennis J, Gallentine William B, Giza Christopher C, Goldstein Joshua L, Hahn Cecil D, Lerner Jason T, Loddenkemper Tobias, Matsumoto Joyce H, McBain Kristin, Nash Kendall B, Payne Eric, Sánchez Fernández Iván, Shults Justine, Williams Korwyn, Yang Amy, Abend Nicholas S   Electroencephalography monitoring in critically ill children: Current practice and implications for future study design Epilepsia, 2013; 54(8): 1419-27.
Abend Nicholas S, Arndt Daniel H, Carpenter Jessica L, Chapman Kevin E, Cornett Karen M, Gallentine William B, Giza Christopher C, Goldstein Joshua L, Hahn Cecil D, Lerner Jason T, Loddenkemper Tobias, Matsumoto Joyce H, McBain Kristin, Nash Kendall B, Payne Eric, Sánchez Sarah M, Fernández Iván Sánchez, Shults Justine, Williams Korwyn, Yang Amy, Dlugos Dennis J   Electrographic seizures in pediatric ICU patients: Cohort study of risk factors and mortality Neurology, 2013; 81(4): 383-391.
Van Cleve William, Kernic Mary A, Ellenbogen Richard G, Wang Jin, Zatzick Douglas F, Bell Michael J, Wainwright Mark S, Groner Jonathan I, Mink Richard B, Giza Christopher C, Boyle Linda Ng, Mitchell Pamela H, Rivara Frederick P, Vavilala Monica S, Vavilala Monica S   National Variability in Intracranial Pressure Monitoring and Craniotomy for Children with Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Neurosurgery, 2013; 81(4): .
Kernic Mary A, Rivara Frederick P, Zatzick Douglas F, Bell Michael J, Wainwright Mark S, Groner Jonathan I, Giza Christopher C, Mink Richard B, Ellenbogen Richard G, Boyle Linda, Mitchell Pamela H, Kannan Nithya, Vavilala Monica S, Vavilala Monica S   Triage of children with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury to trauma centers Journal of neurotrauma, 2013; 30(13): 1129-36.
Giza Christopher C, Kutcher Jeffrey S, Ashwal Stephen, Barth Jeffrey, Getchius Thomas S D, Gioia Gerard A, Gronseth Gary S, Guskiewicz Kevin, Mandel Steven, Manley Geoffrey, McKeag Douglas B, Thurman David J, Zafonte Ross   Summary of evidence-based guideline update: evaluation and management of concussion in sports: report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology Neurology, 2013; 80(24): 2250-7.
Sanchez Sarah M, Carpenter Jessica, Chapman Kevin E, Dlugos Dennis J, Gallentine William B, Giza Christopher C, Goldstein Joshua L, Hahn Cecil D, Kessler Sudha K, Loddenkemper Tobias, Riviello James J, Abend Nicholas S, Abend Nicholas S   Pediatric ICU EEG monitoring: current resources and practice in the United States and Canada Journal of clinical neurophysiology : official publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society, 2013; 30(2): 156-60.
Matsumoto Joyce H, Caplan Rochelle, McArthur David L, Forgey Marcy J, Yudovin Sue, Giza Christopher C   Prevalence of epileptic and nonepileptic events after pediatric traumatic brain injury Epilepsy & behavior : E&B, 2013; 27(1): 233-7.
Prins Mayumi L, Alexander Daya, Giza Christopher C, Hovda David A   Repeated mild traumatic brain injury: mechanisms of cerebral vulnerability Journal of neurotrauma, 2013; 30(1): 30-8.
Choe Meeryo C, Babikian Talin, DiFiori John, Hovda David A, Giza Christopher C   A pediatric perspective on concussion pathophysiology Current opinion in pediatrics, 2012; 24(6): 689-95.
Reger Maxine L, Poulos Andrew M, Buen Floyd, Giza Christopher C, Hovda David A, Fanselow Michael S   Concussive Brain Injury Enhances Fear Learning and Excitatory Processes in the Amygdala Biological psychiatry, 2011; .
Adelson P David, Pineda Jose, Bell Michael J, Abend Nicholas S, Berger Rachel P, Giza Christopher C, Hotz Gillian, Wainwright Mark S   Common Data Elements for Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Recommendations from the Working Group on Demographics and Clinical Assessment Journal of neurotrauma, 2011; .
Shrey Daniel W, Griesbach Grace S, Giza Christopher C   The pathophysiology of concussions in youth Physical medicine and rehabilitation clinics of North America, 2011; 22(4): 577-602, vii.
Hutson Che Brown, Lazo Carlos R, Mortazavi Farzad, Giza Christopher C, Hovda David, Chesselet Marie-Francoise   Traumatic brain injury in adult rats causes progressive nigrostriatal dopaminergic cell loss and enhanced vulnerability to the pesticide paraquat Journal of neurotrauma, 2011; 28(9): 1783-801.
Cazalis Fabienne, Babikian Talin, Giza Christopher, Copeland Sarah, Hovda David, Asarnow Robert F   Pivotal role of anterior cingulate cortex in working memory after traumatic brain injury in youth Frontiers in neurology, 2011; 1(17): 158.
Kutcher Jeffrey S, Giza Christopher C   Sideline assessment of sports concussion: the lure of simplicity Neurology, 2011; 76(17): 1450-1.
Giza Christopher C, Difiori John P   Pathophysiology of sports-related concussion: an update on basic science and translational research Sports health, 2011; 3(1): 46-51.
Barkhoudarian Garni, Hovda David A, Giza Christopher C   The molecular pathophysiology of concussive brain injury Clinics in sports medicine, 2011; 30(1): 33-48, vii-iii.
Schober Michelle E, Block Benjamin, Beachy Joanna C, Statler Kimberly D, Giza Christopher C, Lane Robert H   Early and sustained increase in the expression of hippocampal IGF-1, but not EPO, in a developmental rodent model of traumatic brain injury Journal of neurotrauma, 2010; 27(11): 2011-20.
Babikian Talin, Prins Mayumi L, Cai Yan, Barkhoudarian Garni, Hartonian Ivet, Hovda David A, Giza Christopher C   Molecular and physiological responses to juvenile traumatic brain injury: focus on growth and metabolism Developmental neuroscience, 2010; 32(5-6): 431-41.
Babikian Talin, Marion Sarah Deboard, Copeland Sarah, Alger Jeffry R, O’Neill Joseph, Cazalis Fabienne, Mink Richard, Giza Christopher C, Vu Jennifer A, Hilleary Suzanne M, Kernan Claudia L, Newman Nina, Asarnow Robert F   Metabolic levels in the corpus callosum and their structural and behavioral correlates after moderate to severe pediatric TBI Journal of neurotrauma, 2010; 27(3): 473-81.
Difiori John P, Giza Christopher C   New techniques in concussion imaging Current sports medicine reports, 2010; 9(1): 35-9.
Reger Maxine L, Hovda David A, Giza Christopher C   Ontogeny of Rat Recognition Memory measured by the novel object recognition task Developmental psychobiology, 2009; 51(8): 672-8.
Giza Christopher C, Kolb Bryan, Harris Neil G, Asarnow Robert F, Prins Mayumi L   Hitting a moving target: Basic mechanisms of recovery from acquired developmental brain injury Developmental neurorehabilitation, 2009; 12(5): 255-68.
Madikians Andranik, Giza Christopher C   Treatment of traumatic brain injury in pediatrics Current treatment options in neurology, 2009; 11(6): 393-404.
Giza Christopher C, Mink Richard B, Madikians Andranik   Pediatric traumatic brain injury: not just little adults Current opinion in critical care, 2007; 13(2): 143-52.
Giza Christopher C, Maria Naomi S Santa, Hovda David A   N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit changes after traumatic injury to the developing brain Journal of neurotrauma, 2006; 23(6): 950-61.
Giza Christopher C, Prins Mayumi L   Is being plastic fantastic? Mechanisms of altered plasticity after developmental traumatic brain injury Developmental neuroscience, 2006; 28(4-5): 364-79.
Gurkoff Gene G, Giza Christopher C, Hovda David A   Lateral fluid percussion injury in the developing rat causes an acute, mild behavioral dysfunction in the absence of significant cell death Brain research, 2006; 1077(1): 24-36.
Giza Christopher C, Griesbach Grace S, Hovda David A   Experience-dependent behavioral plasticity is disturbed following traumatic injury to the immature brain Behavioural brain research, 2005; 157(1): 11-22.
Zanier Elisa Roncati, Lee Stefan M, Vespa Paul M, Giza Christopher C, Hovda David A   Increased hippocampal CA3 vulnerability to low-level kainic acid following lateral fluid percussion injury Journal of neurotrauma, 2003; 20(5): 409-20.
Ip Emily Yu-Yen, Giza Christopher Conrad, Griesbach Grace Sophia, Hovda David Allen   Effects of enriched environment and fluid percussion injury on dendritic arborization within the cerebral cortex of the developing rat Journal of neurotrauma, 2002; 19(5): 573-85.
Giza Christopher C, Prins Mayumi L, Hovda David A, Herschman Harvey R, Feldman Jonathan D   Genes preferentially induced by depolarization after concussive brain injury: effects of age and injury severity Journal of neurotrauma, 2002; 19(4): 387-402.
Giza Christopher C., Hovda David A.   The Neurometabolic Cascade of Concussion Journal of athletic training, 2001; 36(3): 228-235.
Donnelly TJ and Giza CC.   Differential Diagnosis Mnemonics, , 2001; .
Fineman I, Giza CC, Nahed B, Lee SM and Hovda DA.   Inhibition of neocortical plasticity during development by moderate concussive brain injury, Journal of Neurotrauma, 2000; 17(9): 739-49.
Rabizadeh S, Ye X, Wang JJL, Sperandio S, Wang, JJL, Ellerby HM, Ellerby LM, Giza CC, Andrusiak RL, Frankowski H, Yaron Y, Moayeri NN, Rovelli G, Evans CJ, Butcher LL, Nolan GP, Assa-Munt N, and Bredesen DE.   Neurotrophin dependence domain: A domain required for the mediation of apoptosis by the p75 neurotrophin receptor, Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, 2000; 15: 215-229.

Neil Harris, Ph.D.


Professor Harris directs NEIL lab with over 25 years of experience with rodent CNS injury models and in particular using MRI and PET to assess structure and function. He received his B.Sc. in Biology/Neuroscience from University of Portsmouth in 1988, and his Ph.D. in Physiology from King’s College London in 1991. Dr. Harris’s early focus of research addressed the question of optimal timing for intervention after the diagnosis of infantile hydrocephalus. Prior to joining University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Dr. Harris received training in multimodality imaging techniques, including PET, structural MRI, fMRI, DTI, and Glucose/blood-flow autoradiography at Kings college University of London, University of Florida McKnight Brain Institute, the Royal College of Surgeons unit of Biophysics in the Institute of Child Health, and University of Cambridge Department of Neurosurgery. Subsequently, Dr. Harris conducted studies to address forebrain ischemic stroke looking at the potential use of non-invasive biomarkers to determine salvageable areas of brain. The studies were cited amongst primary reported findings on biophysical mechanism of the change in water diffusion after stroke. Dr. Harris currently resides as Professor in Residence of UCLA Department of Neurosurgery where he primarily conducts investigations on Traumatic Brain Injury and is the scientific director of UCLA 7T animal imaging core.

Fernando Gómez-Pinilla, Ph.D.


Mechanisms of Neural Repair Role of Trophic Factors on Activity-dependent Plasticity We are interested on the mechanisms by which environmental factors affect neuronal health. We have found that trophic factors endogenous to the brain and spinal cord can be induced by the practice of select behaviors. We have recently reported that physical activity, learning, and nutritional factors control neurotrophins in the brain. These findings opened the exciting possibility that regulation of trophic factors by behavior can be a pivotal mechanism by which specific experiences can impact the structure and function of the CNS. It may account for the improvement of CNS function after trauma provided by rehabilitative therapies. On the contrary, it may explain the decay in function in aging or degenerative diseases following a lack of stimulation. These two avenues provide direction for my research program: 1) How trophic factors induced by activity can help functional recovery following brain and spinal cord trauma. We are using several exercise models to boost the production of trophic factors in the brain and spinal cord. Our goal is to provide critical information to guide the design of behavioral therapies for the reduction of the severity of insult or disease, and to increase CNS function. 2) We are evaluating the effects of lifestyle on trophic factor production, with resulting effects on circuit remodeling, synaptic function, and cognition. We believe that changes in trophic factor as a result of select experiences can affect neuronal health with profound consequences for cognitive function.